The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (January, 2012) Vol. 46 : 1 6
Gastrointestinal Stromal tumor of the stomach and retroperitoneal
paraganglioma in Saudi woman, "A case report"
Department of Pathology ,College Of Medicine, Taif University , Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and paraganglioma are uncommon tumors; mostly
occur in a sporadic and isolated form. They are occasionally components of 3 clinical
syndromes, familial paraganglioma and gastric GIST, neurofibromatosis type 1 and Carney
triad. The latter does not show genetic mutations and affects young women predominantly.
This article reports the occurrence of GIST and retroperitoneal paraganglioma in young Saudi
woman aged 22 years. The initial clinical presentation was acute severe gastric bleeding.
Gastric mass with retroperitoneal mass was discovered during surgical exploration.
Histological and immunohistochemical study of both masses showed features of GIST and
paraganglioma. The combination of GIST and retroperitoneal paraganglioma in the reported
case may be incomplete expression of Carney triad or be coincidental occurrence.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and
9.5 x 6.5 x 5.0 cm with grayish cut
paraganglioma are uncommon tumors
surface. The retroperitoneal mass appeared
mostly occur in a sporadic and isolated
oval in shape, capsulated, well-defined
form. They occasionally arise in the
with 6.5 x 5.5 x 5.0 cm dimensions and
setting of 3 clinical syndromes, familial
grayish white solid cut surface.
neurofibromatosis, type I (2) and Carney
triad (3). Carney triad is a rare condition
performed in tissue fixed in 10% formalin
with fewer than 100 cases reported in the
literature worldwide. In most cases, there
Immunohistochemical studies were done
is incomplete expression of the triad with
using CD 117 monoclonal antibody (1:20,
only 2 of the 3 neoplasms seen at first
Novocastra), CD 117 polyclonal antibody
presentation (4, 5&6).
(1:300 DAKO), NSE monoclonal antibody
monoclonal antibody (1:40, DAKO),
A 22-year old female presented to hospital
with acute severe gastric bleeding.
Surgical exploration revealed big gastric
antibody (1:100, DAKO), S100 polyclonal
mass in the posterior wall of body and
antrum and another retroperitoneal mass.
monoclonal antibody(1:400 DAKO) and
Surgical resection of both masses was
DAKO). Novocastra Streptavidin- HRP
was used as detection system and DAB as
Gross examination of the gastric mass
revealed intramural mass. The mass was
partially covered by mucosa, measuring
Background & Aims: Curcumin (CCM), cinnamon (CE) and Ginger (GE),
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine ( Jan 2012) Vol. 46 , Page 7 16
Effect of Some Herbal Plants on Liver Function of Rats Treated with
L. M. ALGhwij, A. M. Ghoneim, A. E. Said and G. A. Abd-Allah
Biology Department Faculty of Science and Education., ALmergheb University., Libya
Zoology Department Faculty of Science., Damietta Branch Mansoura University., Egypt
Background & Aims: Curcumin (CCM), Cinnamon (CNN) and Ginger (GE) had been
considered to possess antioxidant activities. This study aimed to investigate their protection
effect against trichloroethylene (TCE)-induced hepatotoxicity and to demonstrate its possible
mode of action.
Methods: Rats were fed CCM, CNN and GE singly with or without 5mg/l of TCE in drinking
water. The rat were killed after treatment period of 8 weeks, and the serum levels of alanine
aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), bilirubin, proteins, glucose,
albumin and triglycerides were determined.
Results: TCE- receiving rat exhibited significant changes in biomarkers of liver function to
indicate liver injury. The CCM containing diet significantly ameliorated the serum
aminotransferases, especially ALAT, total protein and albumin. The CNN containing diet
significantly ameliorated the total protein and albumin. The GE containing diet significantly
ameliorated the serum aminotransferases, especially ALAT.
In conclusion, this work indicated that CCM is the most herbal plant which can protected and
alleviated the liver function.
Key Words: Trichloroethylene - Curcumin - Cinnamon - Ginger - Rats
Nowadays, there is an increasing
documented (sharma et al., 2001).CCM
interest in the protective function of
has been also shown to inhibit lipid
dietary antioxidants, which play an
peroxidation caused by many toxic agents
important role in the protection of liver.
in hepatocytes either in vitro or in vivo
CCM (diferuloyl methane) is a phenolic
(Ramirez Bosca et al.,1995; Devasena et
compound present in large quantities in
al., 2002). On the other hand, no
the root of plant curcuma longa. It has
treatment-related toxicity was observed up
been widely used as a spice and coloring
to an oral dose of 8000 mg/day for 3
agent in food. Recently, CCM has been
month in mice (Chuang et al., 2000). This
considered to possess anti-inflammatory
non toxic nature of CCM, as well as its
and antioxidant activities ( Anto et al.,
multiple beneficial clinical effects, has
2000). The ability of CCM to prevent
made it one of the most attractive
tumor formation in the skin , forestomach,
duodenum, and colon of mice and in the
CNN (Cinnamon), also known by
tongue, colon, mammary glands, and
Cassia, Sweet Wood, and Gui Zhi, is
sebaceous glands of rats has been well
Radioprotective Effects of Garlic and Lycopene on the Influence of Irradiation on Oxidant and Antioxidant Defense Systems in the Brain of Rats
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine ( Jan 2012) Vol. 46 , Page 17 25
Proactive Role of Garlic and Lycopene Extract against Gamma
Irradiation-Induced Alterations in Antioxidant Defense Systems in the
Brain of Rats
Tamer M. M. Saad
Medical and Radiation Research Dept., Nuclear Materials Authority, Cairo, Egypt
Radiation protection concepts and philosophy have been evolving over the past several
decades. The inadvertent exposure of human from various source of radiation causes
Ionization of molecules, setting off potentially damaging reactions via free radicals
production. Garlic, Allium sativun, is a member of the lily family that has been cultivated by
humans as a food plant for over 10,000 years. Ancient Egyptian used garlic as a remedy for a
variety of diseases. Lycopene is a naturally occurring carotenoid found almost exclusively in
tomatos and tomato products and the red pigments of the tomato. Lycopene is one of the most
potent antioxidants among dietary carotenoids, it exhibits the highest antioxidant activity and
singlet oxygen quenching ability of all dietary carotenoids.
The present study aims to investigate the antioxidative activity of garlic and lycopene extract
on the oxidative stress in the damaged brain tissue, irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy.
Material and Methods
Animals were pretreated with garlic or lycopene by orally administration using suitable
stomach tube for one month prior to radiation exposure. The levels of malondialdhyde
(MDA), glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and
glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were estimated in brain tissue.
The results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in
the levels of MDA and (GSH-Px) as well as, significant reduction in SOD, CAT activities and
Administration of garlic or lycopene by using suitable stomach tube pre-irradiation has
significantly ameliorated the radiation induced disturbances in all of the investigated
Key words: ionizing radiation, garlic, lycopene and Antioxidants.
derived natural antioxidants that interfere
philosophy have been evolving over the
with free radicals before they can damage
past several decades. The inadvertent
the body. Antioxidants work in several
exposure of human from various source of
ways by reducing the energy of the free
radiation causes ionization of molecules,
radicals, stop the free radical from forming
setting off potentially damaging reactions
in the first place, or interrupt an oxidizing
via free radicals production. Free radicals
chain reaction to minimize the damage of
are believed to play a role in more than
free radicals (Krol et al., 2002).
sixty different health conditions, including
The development of radioprotective
the ageing process, cancer, radiation
agents has been the subject of intense
damage, atherosclerosis, etc (Laverne,
research in view of their potential for use
2000). Fortunately, there are many plants
within a radiation environment; however,
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Jan. 2012) Vol., 46: 26 42
Effect of Zingiber officinale on fatty liver induced by oxytetracycline in albino rats.
Eman G.E. Helal* , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab* , Atef M. Moussa Sharaf**
and Ghada A. Zedan*
*Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, For Girls.
**Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University
Background: Fatty liver causes were markedly increased in Egyptian people throughout last years.
People prefer to use the medicinal plants instead of using chemical compounds because they are cheap and
have few side effects compared to chemical compounds. Ginger is a natural dietary rhizome with anti-
oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the
possible potential therapeutic and protective effects of Zingiber officinale (ginger) against oxytetracyclin-
induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for
possible therapeutic applications.
Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group
was divided into three sub-groups: a) control, b) fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with
oxytetracycline (120mg/kg) for three consecutive days and c) ginger treated group; which was treated with
ginger water extract (125 mg/kg) for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after
33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a)
control, b) fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120 mg/kg) for three
consecutive days and c) ginger protective group; which received ginger for 15 days before induction of
fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days). Blood samples were collected for
biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10% formalin for histological study.
Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides,
LDL cholesterol, ALAT, ASAT, GGT, LDH, urea, creatinine and A/G ratio while total protein, albumin,
globulin and HDL cholesterol were significantly decreased compared to control group. These
biochemical changes were accompanied with histopathological alterations in fatty liver tissue. The
treatment with ginger ameliorated most of the evaluated biochemical parameters and improved the
induced degenerative histopathological changes. The pre-treatment with ginger before the induction of
fatty liver gave some protection against factors that experimentally induced fatty liver.
Conclusion: Ginger as diet additive is recommend for fatty liver patients or those people who have
hyperlipidemic family history.
Keywords: Fatty liver, Ginger, Lipid profile, Rats, Physiological parameters, Histopathology.
Fatty liver, or hepatosteatosis, is characterized
al., 2005). When hepatosteatosis is present in the
histologically by triglyceride accumulation within
absence of excessive alcohol consumption, it is
the cytoplasm of hepatocytes (Ratziu et al., 2010)
termed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, or
and refers to fat accumulation in the liver
NAFLD (Ratziu et al., 2010, Marchesini et al.,
exceeding 5%10% by weight (Szczepaniak et
2001), which is considered to be the hepatic
manifestation of the metabolic syndrome
(Shulman and Mangelsdorf, 2005). NAFLD
- Touba EP, Zakaria M, Tahereh E (2012): Anti-fungal activity of cold and hot water extracts of spices against fungal pathogens of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in vitro. Microb Pathog., 52(2):125-129.
Fluoride Levels of Breast Milk
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Jan. 2012) Vol., 46: 43 46
Fluoride Levels of Mothers' Breast Milk in Egypt
1*Ghada, Z A Soliman and 2*Tamer M M Saad
* Assist Prof Biochemistry; 1: National Nutrition Institute, Cairo;
2: Nuclear Materials Authority, Cairo.
Introduction: Fluoride exists naturally in water sources and is derived from fluorine. It is well known that
fluoride helps, prevent and even reverse the early stages of tooth decay.
Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the fluoride levels in plasma and breast milk of lactating
mothers in Egypt (Cairo and Giza Governorate).
Material and Methods: Two hundred healthy lactating mothers aged between 20-40 years old were asked to
give plasma and milk samples voluntary. Breast milk samples were directly refrigerated until measurements. The
fluoride concentrations of plasma, milk and drinking tap water were assessed using an ion-selective fluoride
electrode combined with an ion analyzer.
Results: The fluoride levels of plasma, breast milk and drinking tap water samples were 0.0207±0.012,
0.0111±0.0044 ppm, and 0.482±0.117 ppm, respectively. A significant direct correlation between fluoride
content in breast milk and drinking tap water was found (r=0.858, p< 0.01).
Key words: Breast milk; Fluoride; Tap water
mouth rinses, tablets, drops () but fluoride containing
products are not commonly used by infants (< 2years)
Breast milk is considered to be the best nutrient for
infants (universal food for new born) especially in the
first six months of life, where milk is considered as the
here in Egypt. Regarding infants, the major dietary
main diet (contains all of the essential nutrients for their
intake constitutes the breast milk, cow's milk and infant
development and growth). After 6 month of age, the
milk formulations, in which the fluoride content varies
dietary importance of milk gradually changes due to
widely (Buzalaf et al., 2004; and Rahul et al., 2003).
supplementation of other foods. In Egypt, there are
Approximately 99% of the total body fluoride is
several trials and programs trying to increase the trend
retained in bones and teeth (Whitford 1996). Kidneys
to breast feeding, and is growing high. Most children
are the primary route for the removal of fluoride from
are fed with breast milk which is a natural human
the body. Other routes of fluoride excretion are sweat,
product and cost nothing especially for poor families,
feces, saliva and breast milk of lactating mothers
and it does not need any preparation (Egypt;
(WHO 1994; and Usuda et al., 2007).
Demographic and Health Surveys [EDHS], 2004,
2006, and 2008). The level of fluoride in breast milk
Materials and methods
plays an important role as a fluoride supplement to the
infant. Fluoride is the most clinically medicine used for
This study has been approved by the ethical
reducing dental caries. The concentration of fluoride is
committee of General organization for teaching
critical regarding the potential dental fluorosis that may
hospitals and institutes.
result from high concentrations of dietary fluoride
Two hundred mothers aged between 20-40 years old
(Ekstrand et al., 1994). Dental caries in young children
were included in the study. Mothers who take
is an important dental health problem. Source of
fluoride supplements were excluded (which is very
fluoride is from various foods; drinking water and
rare here in Egypt). Milk was collected from
fluoride containing products comprising dentifrices,
lactating mothers. For milk samples, the breast was
swabbed with cotton wool and distilled water before
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Jan. 2012) Vol., 46: 47 63
Histological and Immunohistochemical study on the Changes Induced by
Contraceptive pills in the female rabbit's kidney
Abdel Kader DH*, Gabri MS**, Ibrahim MA**, Hassan BN**
*Department of histology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University.
**Department of zoology and entomology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University.
Background: The mechanism for the development of overt hypertension due to the oral contraception
ingestion remains unclear. Experimental evidence favors a role for the renin-angiotensin system. The
present study focuses on evaluating the effect of two different contraceptive pills including combined pills
(estrogen and progesterone) and mini pills (progesterone only) on the kidney of female rabbit.
Material and methods: After three month of daily oral administration of these contraceptive pills the
animals were sacrificed. The excised kidneys were dissected, processed and stained with H & E, PAS and
Masson's trichrome and anti-angiotensin II immunohistochemical stains. This was followed by
morphometric measurements and statistical study.
Results: This study revealed that contraceptive pills administration specially the combined one caused
marked alterations in the form of damaged kidney tubules with cell swelling and loss of brush border and
enlarged glomeruli with hypercellularity. Also, a statistically significant increase in collagenous content
peritubular and peri and intraglomerular was observed. There was also a statistically significant increase
in the anti-Angiotensin II immunoreactivity in renal tubules as well as intra-glomerular and in the
interstitial cells. All these changes were less marked after mini pill treatment.
Conclusion: Progesterone only pills could be safer on the kidney as a contraceptive mean when
compared to combined pills.
Key words: combined pills mini pills- rennin-angiotensin system angiotensinII- kidney-
The idea of using hormones for contraception
poorly understood. The renin-angiotensin system
was first suggested in the 1920s when the
may be involved, since estrogen stimulates the
ovarian hormones, oestrogen and progesterone,
hepatic production of the renin substrate,
and their role in reproduction were discovered
angiotensinogen (Darrell and Melissa, 2008).
(David et al., 2009)
Over the last few decades, the understanding of
By the end of the 1960s, a link between high
the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has
levels of oestrogen in the pill and the risk of
advanced dramatically. The RAS is now thought
users developing blood vascular problems as
to play a crucial role in physiologic and
blood clots and strokes was being studied
pathophysiologic mechanisms in almost every
organ system and is a key regulator of
hypertension and renal function (Abadir, 2011).
hypertensive effect of oral contraceptives are
Angiotensin II (AngII) is the most powerful
The role of Coenzyme Ubquinone CoQ10 in modulating the morphological and histological changes of the antidepressant Venlafaxine in albino rats fetuses
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Jan. 2012) Vol., 46: 64 82
The role of Coenzyme Ubquinone CoQ10 in modulating the changes induced
by the antidepressant Venlafaxine in albino rats fetuses
Abu Gabal, H*and Al Shabanat, F**
* College of Science and Humanities, Soliman Bin Abdul Aziz University.
**College of Science, Princess Nora Bent Abdul Rahman University.
Aim of the work:The present study was done to investigate the role played by CoQ10 in the control
of the morphological and histological changes induced in the fetuses of rats injected by the
Material and methods: 70 pregnant Wister wister rats were injected Intraperitonealy during the
organogenesis period with the antidepressant Venlafaxine (0.25mg /100g.body weight) on day 7of
gestation.Mean number of alive embryos,weight and length of them were recorded with the
noticeable malformations beside maternal weights.The protective role of CoQ10 (0.6 mg. /100g.
body weight) was also detected.
Results: Venlafaxine injection induced a very highly significant decrease in the mean maternal and
fetal body weights, the two horns of the uteri appeared unequal as well as the fetuses were unequally
distributed between them, beside the appearance of a lot of resorbed bodies into them, also fat sacs
were clear, a case of ectopic pregnancy was obvious, as well as very highly significant decrease in
the mean number of alive fetuses was noticed, fetal growth retardation beside lots of rat fetal
malformations were observed such as subcutaneous blood bleeding, cleft lips and anomalies of the
fore and hind limbs as well as kyphosis of the body.
Intraperitonealy injection of Venlafaxine by the fractionated dose (0.75mg. / 100g body weight) on
days 7, 10 and 13 of gestation 0.25mg. /100g each resulted in the death of all the pregnant rats.
CoQ10 (0.6 mg. /100g. body weight) orally injected to the pregnant rats before Venlafaxine
treatment at the two doses (0.25 and 0.75mg./100g.body weight) improved the above morphometric
and morphological as well as the skeletal system changes.
Conclusion : CoQ10 (0.6 mg. /100g. body weight) orally injected to the pregnant rats treated with
Venlafaxine showed protective effect against the dangerous changes induced by this antidepressant.
psychiatrists and other physicians, their
effectiveness and adverse effects are the
medication used to alleviate mood disorders,
subjects of many studies and competing
such as major depression, dysthymia and
claims (Tiihonen et al., 2006).
anxiety disorders (Smith et al., 2010). Drugs
including the monoamine oxidase inhibitors
pregnancy is complex, as it is based on
(MAOIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs),
balancing the risks with the benefits of
treatment versus no treatment for both the
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
mother and the fetus. Studies have shown
that exposure to mental illness in pregnancy
reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are most
has deleterious short-term and long-term
commonly associated with the term (Rubino
effects for the exposed mother and fetus
et al.,2007). These medications are among
(Dimidjian et al.,2009;Raudzus and Misri,
those most commonly prescribed by
depression during pregnancy has been
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Jan. 2012) Vol., 46: 83 95
Study of Erythropoeitin on IGM serum levels in HCV positive patients on
Khaled Abo Seif (1), Mona Hosny (1) And Ahmed Aboud(2)
Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine,
Ain Shams University (1), Shubra Municipal Hospital (2)
Both uremia and HD process cause immunosuppression in HD patients. There was significant
increase of total serum IgG and IgM levels found in patients with chronic HCV compared
with healthy controls. There is evidence pointing to direct effect of rHuEPO upon B cells.
High doses of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHu EPO) enhanced in vitro Ig production
and proliferation of various plasma cell lines, as well as human plasma cells generated in
vitro. Study was conducted at hemodialysis Unit of Shubra Municipal hospital between
August 2010 to February 2011. 30 HCV positive patients on regular hemodialysis were
included in study, using bicarbonate dialysate and polysulfone membrane dialyser, for 4 hours
3 times weekly. Patients were divided into 2 groups: first group: 15 patients on EPO therapy.
4000 IU/week and second group not taking EPO for all patients full clinical examination was
done, CBC, BUN, serum creatinine, ALT, AST, serum albumin and serum IgM by ELISA
(quantitative assay), were done.
There was no significant difference between 2 groups as regards age, sex distribution, WBC
count, ALT, AST, serum creatinine, BUN and IgM serum level. First group had borderline
significant higher Hgb and Hct than second group (p = 0.056). Females didn't have higher
serum IgM level than males (p = 0.403). All correlations of IgM serum level to other
parameters of study were irrelevant. Uremia seems to protect ESRD patients on regular HD
from complications of HCV and also EPO effect on Ig serum levels.
Key words : Erythropoeitin- IgM HCV Hemodialysis.
Uremia is associated with a state of
HCV infection is strongly associated with
immune dysfunction characterized by
mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC), a benign
immunodepression that leads to high
disorder characterized by the proliferation of B
prevalence of infections as well as by
lymphocytes producing polyclonal IgG or
monoclonal IgM with rehumatioid factor (RF)
inflammation (Kiechl et al., 2002).
activity that characteristical y may precipitate
Improper immunological parameters of
at low temperatures (Fazi et al., 2010).
both humoral and cellular immunity in
Besides B-cell activation (non-antigen-
CKD patients seem to be deepened by
specific and antigen-specific), HCV seems
hemodialysis (HD) process (Liwosca et
to infect B lymphocytes directly (Bokle
al., 2011b). Patients with renal disease
and Sepp, 2010).
have been at increased risk of acquiring
Correction of anemia and maintenance of
HCV because of prolonged vascular
access as well as the potential for exposure
erythropoesis stimulating agents (ESA) is
to infected patients and contaminated
an important aspect of ESRD management
equipment (Fabrizi et al., 2007).
(Kalantar-Zadeh and Aronoff, 2009).
Epo therapy leads to improved humoral
experimental evidence of disorders of both
immune response, either directly or via T-
cellular and humoral immunity in chronic
cells help (Prutchi-Sagiv et al., 2005).
hepatitis C patients (Lotfy et al., 2006).
The liver is the most common target for toxic injury
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Jan. 2012) Vol., 46: 96 114
Curative Effect of Bone Marrow Cells Transplantation and/or Low Dose Gamma
Irradiation on Liver Injuries Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride
* Mohamed E.M. Zowail, ** Hanaa F. M. Waer, ** Noaman A. Eltahawy, * Eman H. S.
Khater and *** Amr M. Abd El-hady.
* Faculty of Science, Benha University. ** National Center for Radiation Research and
Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, *** Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences,
Misr University for Science and Technology.
Liver is the most common target for toxic injury. Toxic agents include chemicals such as carbon
tetrachloride (CCl4) and trichloroethylene. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of bone marrow
cells (BMC) transplantation and/or fractionated low doses (0.5 Gy) gamma radiation on established
liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. BMCs of male albino rats were transplanted into 4-weeks carbon
tetrachloride (CCl4)treated and/or fractionated low doses (0.5 Gy) gamma irradiated rats through the
tail vein, and the rats were treated for 4 more weeks with CCl4 (total 8 weeks). Histological and
ultrastructural investigations revealed that both bone marrow cells transplantation and low dose (0.5
Gy) gamma radiation exposure with continuous CCl4 injection had reduced liver fibrosis as compared
with rats treated with CCl4 alone.
radical. Thus, trichloromethylperoxyl free
elicits lipid peroxidation, the
Liver is an important organ which is actively
destruction of Ca2+ homeostasis and finally
involved in many metabolic functions and it is
results in cell death (Rajeswary et al., 2011).
the frequent target for a number of toxicants.
Low doses of gamma rays have been
Hepatic damage is associated with distortion
demonstrated to induce defense such as
of these metabolic functions. Carbon
detoxification of reactive oxygen species
tetrachloride is a highly toxic chemical agent
(Feinendegen et al., 2004), induce high-
which causes hepatic injury. Prolonged
fidelity repair of DNA damage (Rothkamm
administration of CCl
cirrhosis and hepatic carcinoma (Wernke and
chromosomal damage caused by subsequent
Schell, 2004). Evidences indicated that
high radiation dose and protect from
oxidative stress might be a pivotal originating
spontaneous mutations occurrence (Hooker et
factor in the pathogenesis of CCl
al., 2004) and activate the immune response
liver diseases (Kamalakkannan et al., 2005).
(Liu, 2003, 2004). It also stimulates various
Hepatic fibrosis caused by CCl
biological functions: anti-oxidative capacity,
4 has been
extensively used in experimental models in
DNA repair capability and apoptosis (Sakai,
rats because hepatic responses in rats to
2000), enzymatic repair, immunological and
apoptotic removal of DNA damage (Pollycove
4 stimulation are shown to be
superficially similar to human cirrhosis
and Feinendegen, 2000). Chronic low doses
(Smyth et al., 2007).
of gamma radiation are known to stimulate
Carbon tetrachloride induces hepatotoxicity by
prevention and repair of DNA damage and the
immune system, which decreases the gene
biotransformed by cytochrome P
mutation rate, leading to the beneficial effects
450 system in
the endoplasmic reticulum to produce
of decreased mortality in general and
Trichloromethyl free radical when combined
(Cuttler, 2001). Therapeutic stimulation of
with cellular lipids and proteins in the
these defenses by low dose body irradiation
prevents and removes cancer metastases in
trichloromethylperoxyl radical, which may
mice, rats and humans.
attack lipids on the membrane of endoplasmic
Liver cirrhosis represents the final common
reticulum faster than trichloromethyl free
pathological outcome for the majority of
Effectiveness of some vitamins (A,E&C) in restricting the Renal Dysfunction in rats
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Jan. 2012) Vol., 46: 115 131
Comparative studies on the effect of some antioxidants on renal dysfunction in rats
Hewaida A.E.Fadel *; Essayed A. Hassanin *; Zakaria E. Rihan* *; Eveleen S. Abd Allah ***
Department of Nutritional Chemistry& Metabolism, National Nutrition `Institute*; Department of
Endocrinology, Military Medical academy**; Department of Home Economies, Ain Shams
The present study is carrying out for investigating the effect of supplementation with some vitamins (A, E&C)
as natural antioxidant extracts in renal dysfunction in rates.
Material& Methods: 40 adult male Sprague Dawley rats (150 200 g) divided to two groups. First group: 8
rats were fed on standard diet (S.D.), as a control group. Second group: 32 rats were injected intraperitonial with
a single dose of Cis-diammine dichloride Platinum II (CDDP) for inducing renal dysfunction (2.5 mg/Kg) then
it was divided to six subgroups each one contained 8 rats. (1): fed on (S.D.) nephrotoxic group. (2): fed on
(S.D.) + Vitamin A (15 mg/Kg body weight/day). (3): fed on (S.D.) + Vitamin E (317 I.U. /kg body
weight/day). (4): fed on (S.D.) + Vitamin C (280 I.U. /kg body weight/day). The experimental period was four
weeks, results were statistically analyzed.
Results: The results proved that groups of nephrotoxicity rats supplemented with Vitamin A,E and C showed
significant increase in food intakes, body weight gain and food efficiency ratio (FER) (28.9%, 29.4% and
19.2%), (870.5%, 1615.6% and 409.8%) and (652.5%, 122502% and 327.3%) respectively, compared with
nephrotoxic group. The nephrotoxicity rats supplemented with Vitamin A and showed significant reduction in
serum vitamin E &kidney glutathione content (9.3% & 47.9%), while nephrotoxicity rats supplemented with
Vitamin E&C showed significant increase in serum vitamin E &kidney glutathione content (27.9% & 116.6%),
(13.7%&55.8%)respectively. The results showed that nephrotoxicity rats supplemented with Vitamin A,E and
C showed significant reduction in serum urea nitrogen and creatinine (48.01% and 55.2%), (52.6% and 60.3%)
and (57.0% and 63.04%) respectively. Best results in histopathological examination of kidney were in vitamin
A and vitamin C groups.
Conclusion: These results suggest that natural antioxidants could be beneficial as additional therapy in renal
Key words: Natural antioxidants - Renal dysfunction Nephrotoxicity - Histopathological examination
consequences (Perazella, 2006). A world wide, the
number of patients who receiving renal replacement
The kidneys are the main organs of the body
through which nitrogenous wastes are excrete in the
form of urea (Shubhangini, 2001) .The basic
therapy is estimated at more than 1.4 million, with
functional unit of the kidneys is the nephron. Most
incidence growing by approximately 8% annually.
kidney diseases attack the nephrons. Causing them
At the year 2025 the kidney failure patients in the
to lose their filtering capacity. The two most
world will be 10 million, 70% of them are there in
common causes of kidney disease are diabetes and
growing countries. In Egypt there are more than
high blood pressure (Bruce, 2004). Any disorder in
120000 patients suffering from kidney failure.
the kidney results in serious complication of the
Driving this increase are population ageing,
circulatory system, high blood pressure, anemia,
diabetes mellitus and hypertension, the key risk
weak bones, poor nutritional health, nerve damage
factors for chronic kidney disease (Sarah et al,
and cause complications may not satisfactory
2008). The specialized researches confirmed that