Age and gender specific patterns of microfilaremia and circulating antigen with specific lymphocyte proliferative responses
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol. 9, 1- 11 Dec.2002
I.S.S.N: 12084

Rec . Nov. 2000

Age and gender specific patterns of microfilaremia and circulating
antigen with specific lymphocyte proliferative responses in
Wucherereia bancrofti filariasis.

Amal, A. Al-Shafei1; Thanaa, M. El-Nashar1; Yousr, M. Ghoneame1;
Fatma, M.Selim2 and Gamal, N. Ahmed3.

Departments of Parasitology1, Microbiology2 and Tropical Medicine3 Faculty of
Medicine , Al-Azhar University.

A population from a W. bancrofti- endemic area was evaluated by use of
microfilaria(Mf) and adult worm circulating antigen(CAg) enzyme linked
immunosorbent assay to demonstrate the relation of these two parameters to age ,
gender and the clinical status (symptomatic or asymptomatic) of the examined
individuals. In addition, antigen-driven T cell proliferation was measured to study the
effect of the clinical status and / or infection status on the host responsiveness in
lymphatic filariasis. The results showed that the prevalence rates of each of the two
markers are clearly age dependent and were significantly higher in males than females.
The antigen prevalence rate was consistently higher than the microfilaria prevalence
rate in all age groups. Among the asymptomatic and symptomatic patients, the direct
relationship between Mf+ and CAg+ remained intact regardless of clinical status.
Individuals positive for CAg had significantly lower lymphocyte proliferation responses
to parasite antigen than did CAg-negative people. This study re-emphasizes the
importance of CAg measurements for accurately assessing the clinical status of filariasis
and demonstrates that the presence or absence of active infection, not clinical status is
most closely associated with the immune responsiveness in lymphatic filariasis.

A complex sequence of interact -
During the initial or prepatent period of
tions critical to the success of lymphatic
infection, large amount of soluble
filariae occurs shortly after 3rdstage
filarial antigens are excreted and
infective larvae are deposited on the
secreted by developing parasites,
skin during blood feeding by the
especially during the molting process.
mosquito vector Human exposure to
These antigens are presumably proce -
infective larvae is associated with a
ssed by antigen presenting cell
broad spectrum of clinical , parasito -
(Pogonka et al., 1999) and detection of
logical and immunological outcomes.
these antigens in peripheral blood
Chanteau et al. (1995) reported that the
would provide an accurate indication of
dynamics of acquisition of bancroftian
active filarial infection (Mohsen et al.,
filariasis in man are probably related to
1996). So antigenaemia could be used
the intensity and the age of exposure.
as a marker of infection and an indicator
Refree : Prof ; Dr. Siuda Gaafar

Full Paper (vol.9 paper# 1)

The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 9: 12 - 27 Dec.2002
I.S.S.N: 12084

Rec . Nov. 2000

The Effect of The Specific Phosphodiesterase Type V Inhibitor,
"Sildenafil Citrate", on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rabbit Corpus
Cavernosal Smooth Muscle

Safwat.E. Abou Hashem*; Kariman El-Houssieni Sleim**; Soad
Abdalla Sleim ** ;Hesham El-Gendy*and Ahmed A. Abd-El-Aal*

* Department of Urology and **Department of Physiology, Faculty of
Medicine, Zagazig University

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of sildenafil (S) together with
the influence of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and acetylcholine (Ach) on isolated strips
of rabbit corpus cavernosum. The in vitro effects of sildenafil on non-adrenergic, non-
cholinergic and nitric oxide (NO)-mediated cavernosal smooth muscle relaxation in
diabetic rabbits, were also investigated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in adult male
New Zealand white rabbits with alloxan (65 mg/kg, i.v). Cavernosal strips from age-
matched control and 5 months diabetic animals were mounted in organ baths containing
Krebs-bicarbonate solution (pH 7.4, bubbled continueously with a gas mixture of 95%
O2 plus 5% CO2, and maintained at 37oC. Isolated strips of control rabbit corpus
cavernosum were stimulated isotonically with phenylephrine (10-5M) and relaxations
were induced using increasing concentrations of Ach, SNP and S alone and in
combination. Also, relaxation responses of control and diabetic strips precontracted
with phenylephrine (10-5M) to electrical field stimulation (EFS, 4-20 Hz) or SNP (10-9
10-3M) were assessed in the absence and presence of a submaximal dose of sildenafil
It was found that Ach, SNP and S relaxed the control rabbit corpus cavernosal
strips in a dose-dependent manner. The relaxant effect of the test agents were ranked
(from least inhibitory to most inhibitory) as follows: S, Ach plus S, SNP, SNP plus S,
Ach. Moreover, it was observed that SNP-stimulated relaxations were significantly
impaired in the corpus cavernosum from diabetic group compared to age-matched
controls. Sildenafil (10-6M) significantly enhanced SNP-stimulated relaxation in control
and diabetic groups. Electrical field stimulation-mediated relaxations of the corpus
cavernosum were significantly impaired after 5 months diabetes mellitus and enhanced
by sildenafil (10-6M).
In conclusion, sildenafil enhances the relaxing effect of both SNP and Ach on the
phenylephrine-induced contraction of rabbit cavernosal tissue. It could also be
suggested that the impairment of NO-mediated relaxation of the diabetic corpus
cavernosum reflect, at least in part, a defect in guanyl cyclase activity. These findings
support the use of sildenafil as an effective, orally administered, treatment for diabetic
erectile dysfunction.

Refree : Prof ; Dr. Khalil A .

Full Paper (vol.9 paper# 2)

Ginsing Pre-Treatment Lessens The Acute Testis Injury Of The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 9: 28 - 47 Dec.2002
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 -2002

Ginsing Pre-Treatment Lessens The Acute Testis Injury Of
Rats Induced By Thioacetamide

Nehal, A.Moustafa & Amera Tohamey

Al-Azhar University,Nasser City. Cairo, Egypt.
Zoology Department, Faculity Of Science


This work aimed to elucidate the protective action of panax ginseng roots against
hazardous effects of thioacetamide{TA} intoxication .Oral administration of thioacetamide
(300mg/kg)dissolved in drinking water for 12 weeks greatly affected liver and testis .This
appeared from significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase ,serum total acid
phosphatase and serum prostate acid phosphatase . Previous starvation for 48 and 72 hrs
immediately prior to TA administration strongly potentiated the effects of TA on the serum
, testis and liver plasma membrane parameteres . The testis and liver damage may be one of
the reasons of the cell death in TA intoxicated rat testis and liver.
However, oral administration of Panax ginseng roots (117mg /kg.) for a period of 10
days prior to TA administration performed protective effect against TA toxicity. The
obtained results showed that pre-treatment with Panax ginseng roots significantly
modulated the changes in the physiological pathway induced by TA intoxication, and that
Panax ginseng roots manifested marked improvement in the liver function and the structure
of testis and epididymis. Also pre-treatment with ginseng caused a significant reduction in
the deteriorated cells and this may support the protection against cellular damaging action.

Thioacetamide (TA) is a well
p-450 dependent and /or ,non p-450
known hepatotoxin and hepatocarcinogen
dependent mixed function oxidases to
(Fitzhugh&Nelson, 1948).
toxic substances. Low doses of TA
It's acute administration produced
stimulate cell division and tissue repair in
centri-lobular liver necrosis (Hunter et al;
the liver (Mangipudy, 1995). Ginseng is a
plant of medical importance and it has
Environmental agents like TA,
been used by elderly Asians to boost
chloroform, phalloidin, ECT, are known
physical and mental vitality (Kiritikar
to cause hepatic injury that may be lead to
&Basu, 1987). The biological name of
lethal liver disease such as hepatitis and
ginseng is Panax quinuefolium and the
hepatic failure. High doses of TA inhibit
Latin name is Panax ginseng. The most
tissue repair and cause hepatic necrosis
important part of ginseng is the root.
(Mangipudy et al ; 1995,1996). Studies
The chemical constituents of this plant
on the mechanism of development of TA
root are arabinose, comphor, mucilage,
induced injury revealed that TA is
resin, starch and saponin (Food and Drug
metabolized by microsomal cytochrome
Administration, 1999).

Full Paper (vol.9 paper# 3)

Tensioin-Free Vaginal Tape And Burch Colposuspension For Managing Stress Urinary Incontinence ( Types I And Ii ): The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 9 : 48 55 Dec.2002
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 -2002

Tension-Free Vaginal Tape For Treating Stress Urinary
Incontinence ( Types I And Ii ) : Experience With 32 Cases.

*M. H. El-Shazly, and **Nagwa A. Ghaffar.

*Urology Department; El-Sahel Teaching Hospital;
**Ob/Gyn Department, Al Azhar University (Girls), Cairo, Egypt.

To evaluate the clinical outcome of using tension-free vaginal tape
(TVT) for treating types I and II genuine stress urinary incontinence. Patients and
The study comprised a total of 32 women with genuine stress urinary
incontinence types I and II treated with TVT between 1999 and 2002. The mean
follow-up period was 19.4 months. Results: The success rate was 87.5 % (28/32
patients). The cure rate was durable in the majority of successful cases 26/28 (92.9%)
during the one year follow-up period except for 2/28 (7.1%) women in whom stress
urinary incontinence recurred in a milder form. Postoperative retention of urine
occurred in 2/32 (6.3%) patients, which was transient and responded well to urethral
dilatation under local anaesthesia. Details of the clinical outcome variables and
complications are represented. Conclusion: The TVT procedure is an effective and
minimally invasive alternative to surgical options for managing types I and II stress
urinary incontinence. The complication rates are low and hospital stay is short and the
procedure is feasible under local anaesthesia.
Keywords: stress incontinence, TVT, tension-free vaginal tape.


Tension-free vaginal tape (TVT)
Aim of the work:
is a relatively new minimally invasive
To assess the effectiveness and
procedure for managing stress urinary
clinical outcome of the TVT procedure
incontinence which gained a wide
in treating types I and II stress urinary
acceptance by both urologists and
gynecologists during the last decade
Urodynamics Society classification in
with high success rates, low morbidity
1997 [20]
and complication rates [6]. Moreover,

the hospital stay is short and the
Patients and methods:
procedure can be done as a day-case
Between 1999 and 2002, a total of
under local anaesthesia. The standard
32 women (mean age 53.6 years, range
procedure implicates the use of a
37-64 years) with urodyna -mically-
synthetic polypropylene mesh sling
proved types I and II genuine stress
placed in the mid-urethral position [4].
urinary incontinence were treated with
However, further randomized controlled
the TVT procedure,
comparative studies between the TVT
and followed-up for one year at
procedure and the gold standard
minimum, in two centers: Urology
colposuspension options are to be
awaited as well as its long term results.
Hospital, Cairo, Egypt and Urology and

Refree : Prof ; Dr. Fatma EL-Sokkary

Full Paper (vol.9 paper# 4)

Tensioin-Free Vaginal Tape And Burch Colposuspension For Managing Stress Urinary Incontinence ( Types I And Ii ): The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 9 : 56 - 64 Dec.2002
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 -2002

Tension-Free Vaginal Tape And Burch Colposuspension For
Managing Stress Urinary Incontinence ( Types I And Ii ):
A Comparative Clinical Trial.

M. H. El Shazly*, Nagwa A. Ghafar**

Urology Department,* El Sahel Teaching Hospital; Ob/Gyn Department,**
Al Azhar university (Girls), Cairo, Egypt.


To conduct a retrospective study of the clinical outcomes between
tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) and Burch colposuspension for managing types I and II
stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women. Patients and methods: Between 1999
and 2002 a total of 32 TVT procedures and 43 Burch colposuspensions were used
for managing 75 women with types SUI (types I and II) for a minimum follow-up
period of one year. Results: The overall short-term (one year follow-up) success rates
for TVT were 87.5% versus 90.7% for Burch colposuspension. The cure rates were
sustained in the vast majority of patients during the short-term follow-up period (one
year). Postoperative transient obstructive voiding dysfunctions were significantly more
severe and common in Burch colposuspension (25.6%) versus (15.6%) for TVT.
Further details of the clinical outcome and complications are presented. Conclusion:
Both options are effective in managing SUI (types I and II) with comparable success
rates. The success rate is marginally higher for the Burch colposuspension. However,
the TVT procedure had shorter operative time, shorter hospital stay, fewer and milder
complication rate, and is feasible under local anaesthesia. Nevertheless, the long-term
results regarding the durability of the improvement rates are still to be further awaited
for the TVT procedure.
Keywords: stress incontinence, tension-free vaginal tape, colposuspension.


More than a hundred different
ethral injection of bulking agents,
techniques are described for surgical
prosthetic sphincters, and tension-free
management of stress urinary inconti -
vaginal tape (TVT) with the first two
nence (SUI) in women. This reflects the
being the most invasive options. Burch
existence of no ideal option and the
complex interplay of different factors in
autologous facial sling procedures are
the pathogenesis of SUI. It follows that
the most studied ones and are
urologists has to be familiar and gain
considered to be the gold standard
the experience of the main surgical
options, against them all other options
techniques in order to be able to treat
should be judged [1,2,3]. Burch
SUI in its different stages and types.
colposuspension is recommended for
The surgical options include retro-pubic
types I and II SUI with no or minor
colposuspensions, sling procedures,
intrinsic sphincteric deficiency (ISD)
needle suspension techniques, periur -
factor [4]. Pubo-vaginal slings are used
Refree : Prof ; Dr. Gamal Abou El- Serour.

Full Paper (vol.9 paper# 5)

Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism and The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 9 : 65 - 73 Dec.2002

1861 2002

Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism in patients with
Essential hypertension

Magda I.M. El-Mahdy and Mona M. Morsy*
Clinical pathology and Internal Medicine* Departments, Faculty of Medicine for
Girls. Al Azhar University


Several genetic investigations have been attempted to elucidate the association of
angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism and essential hypertension.
This study was conducted to investigate the frequency of ACE gene insertion/deletion
(I/D) polymorphism in patients with essential hypertension (EH). The study included
one hundred patients with essential hypertension and seventy age and sex matched
healthy individuals as a control group. The patients and control group were subjected to
routine investigations, assay of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, high density
lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and
assay of ACE gene I/D polymorphism using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
The results of the study showed that the frequency of DD,ID and II genotypes were
42%, 44% and 14 % respectively in hypertensive group and 30%, 50% and 14 %
respectively in control group with significantly higher frequency of DD genotype in
patients as compared to the control group (p<0.05). There was a significant association
between DD genotype and hypertension, as there was significant increase in both
systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with DD genotype as compared to other
genotypes. Serum cholesterol , HDL-C and LDL C levels showed significant increase
in patients as compared to the control group (P <0.001, P <0.001 and P <0.001:
respectively ) Also, serum Cholesterol and LDL-C levels showed significant increase in
patients with DD and ID genotypes as compared to II genotype , while triglycerides
and HDL-C didn't show differences between the three genotypes. It was concluded that
the DD genotype of ACE gene showed significantly higher frequency among patients
with essential hypertension as compared to the normal subjects and that DD genotype
was associated with significantly higher blood pressure as compared to ID and II
genotypes. Also, DD genotype was associated with significantly higher serum
cholesterol and LDL-C as compared to II genotype. This polymorphism in the ACE
gene may contribute to the pathogenesis and severity of essential hypertension and may
help in selection of anti-hypertensive drugs.

Hypertension is a common risk
(Caulfield et al., 2002). Essential
hypertension is a multifactorial trait
cerebrovascular diseases that are the
involving interactions among genetic,
major causes of morbidity and
environmental and demographic factors
mortality, accounting for more than 12
(Kato,2002). Several genetic investiga -
million deaths annually worldwild
tions have been attempted to elucidate
Refree : Prof ; Dr. Magda Al Saharty.

Full Paper (vol.9 paper# 6)


7861 2002

Evaluation Of Subcutaneous Tissue Response To Implanted
Samples Of Acrylic Resin Mixed With Metal Fillers

El Sayed Galal Khedr* And Ahmed H. Yossef**

Department Of Histology*; Faculty Of Medicine And Department Of
Prothodontic**;Faculty Of Dental Medicine;Al Azhar University

This study was conducted to to study the subcutaneous tissue response as well as
some properties of of heat acrylic resin mixed with Aluminum (Al) and Silver (Ag).
(2%;3%;5%;10%) concentrations of Al and Ag were added separately to heat cured
acrylic resin and the mechanical properties of themixture were examined by the
common Elson technique . The addition of 2% of either Al and Ag to heat acrylic resin
increased its transverse strength as well as its impact strength ; while 5% and 10%
cocentrations reduced both the transverse and the impact strengths of the resin .
Therefore 2% concentrationwas chosen for subcutaneous tissue implantation. Three
pellets of acrylic resin one containing Al ;one containing Ag and the third was free from
both elements as a control were each implanted in the subcutaneous c.t. of twenty male
albino rats. A thick connective tissue capsule surrounding each pellet was formed . Al
containing acrylic resin was surrounded with a thicker capsule formed of collagen fibers
infiltrated with many inflammatory cells ;while the connective tissue reaction against
the pure acrylic resin and Ag acrylic resin was minimal in the form of thin capsule
formed of collagen fibers; fibroblasts and few inflammatory cells . Measurements of the
capsule thickness and the number of inflammmayory cells infiltrating the capsule
showed a significant increase in Al group than in Ag and control groups .In conclusion
the addition of 2% of either Al and Ag to heat acrylic resin improved its strength but Ag
containing heat acrylic resin was more tolerable to tissue.

Acrylic resins are the most widely
ability of the resin (Ragab; 1992).
used materials for denture base
Biological compatibility of tissues to
processing and also used in many
acrylic resins is quite essential because
surgical procedures because the ease of
these materials have many uses
manipulation; repair; pigmintation and
including embedding within the tissue
insolubility in oral fluids (Omar and
(A.D.A. 1982 ) . Many investigators
Shehata; 1993) . Attempts have been
have used acrylic resins and found them
made to improve the physical properties
harmless to living tissue (Hodosh et al.,
of acrylic resins and to overcome their
1970). However others reported that
drawbaks by adding different substa -
biological changes of some resins was
nces (Dixon et al ;1991) . Adding metal
harmful and might induced tumours in
fillers to dental base resin decreased the
laboratory animals (Habal and Powell;
1980). In this study we tried to examine
(Sehajpal and Sood ;1989). Also it
the histological picture of the subcuta -
increased the impact and compressive
neous tissue response to Aluminum and
strengths and decreased the wrap-
silver containing acrylic resin in

Full Paper (vol.9 paper# 7)

The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 9 : 85 - 101 Dec.2002
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 -2002

Anti diabetic and anti-obesity effects of plant extract from
Cleome droserifolia (SAMWA)

*Eman G. E. Helal, **Hafiza A. Sharaf and ***Fathy E. Mattar

* Zoology Department Faculty of science for girls, Al-Azhar University, **Pathology
Department, National Research Center, and ***Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar
University Egypt

In this work the mechanism of the hypoglycemic effect of an aqueous extract from
Cleome droserifolia (SAMWA) was studied in a group of glucose intolerant senile rats
and compared with normal senile control rats. The plant extract significantly suppressed
the rise in blood glucose concentration. The hypoglycemic effect of the plant extract
without increasing insulin secretion was explained by: 1) potentiation of peripheral and
hepatic insulin sensitivity, 2) by diminishing intestinal glucose absorption, which was
evident by blunting plasma glucose levels throughout the oral glucose challenge. This
was accompanied by a significant decrease of liver glycogen content and a highly
significant increase in leptin concentration which may suggest an anti-obesity role for
the plant extracts. Plant extracts also decreased serum urea nitrogen. No changes on
liver or heart function were observed. In histological sections of liver and kidney minor
changes were noticed. These extracts might prove to have a promising therapeutic value
in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Besides its suppression to hepatic glucose output,
SAMWA beneficial therapeutic finding in favor of the plant as a replacement for insulin
which is the most important drug that brings bout this effect.

Although diabetes mellitus is a
cell mass has been reported as normal
multifunctional disease with several
(Rahier et al., 1983), or only partially
causes and with complex consequences
reduced (Gepts, 1972) and the
any consideration of the disease must
pancreatic insulin reserve appears, in
deal with the importance of B- cell
itself, sufficient for a normal glucose
function and the production of adequate
homeostasis. In NIDDM, a defect
amount of active insulin.
seems located in the insulin secretary
Insulin secretion is primarily
capability of the pancreatic B-cell but it
stimulated by glucose and a variety of
is unknown whether this deficiency is of
non-glucose secretogogues including
arginine, isoporoterenal, glucagon and
secretin. However, studies in vitro(
Secretion appears to result from an
Levin et al.,1972 and Gerich at al.,
autoimmune process involving the pan -
1974) and in vivo (Efendic et al., 1971)
creatic insulin producing cells leading
confirmed that the amount of insulin
to their destruction with development of
secreted in response to these non.
diabetic syndrome (O'Brien et al.,
glucose stimuli depends basically on the
1996) The autoimmune process is prob -
underlying glucose concentration.
ably triggered by some environmental
In the non-insulin dependent
factors (viral or toxic) in genetically
diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), the total B-
susceptible individuals (Grunfield et al.,

Full Paper (vol.9 paper# 8)

Aqueous Extract Of Camellia Sinuses Shows Immunological And Histological Changes In Induced Inflammatory Animal Models The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 9 : 102 - 111 Dec.2002
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 -2002

Aqueous Extract Of Camellia Sinuses Shows Immunological And
Histological Changes In Induced Inflammatory Animal Models

Maha G. Soliman

Department of pharmacology (Medical microbiology and immunology unit)
National organization for drug control and research


The present study investigated the effect of green tea (Camellia sinuses) aqueous
extract on the inflammatory response induced by Carrageenan (CGN) (1%) in Sprague
dawaly rats. 48 rats were equally divided into 6 groups:control, green tea drinking,
Carrageenan (1.2%) treated for 24 hours, green tea - Carrageenan treated for 24 hours,
CGN treated for 72 hours, green tea - CGN treated for 72 hours. On the last day of
drinking green tea aqueous extract, inflammation was induced to rats by Carrageenan .
Twenty-four and seventy-two hours after CGN challenge, blood samples were
withdrawn and animals were sacrificed. Animals which were injected with CGN had
shown highly significant leucocytosis, monocytosis and eosinophilia. More
reticuloendothelial organ damages like severe inflammation, cellular lymphocytic
infilteration and congestion were distinguished in 72 hours animal group. Green tea-
drinking and CGN treated groups showed a significant improvement in
reticuloendothelial organs such as thymus gland, spleen and liver. A histopathological
improvement of these organs was observed in green tea and CGN 72 hours treated
group more than that group which treated for 24 hours. This group showed also a
significant drop in total leucocyte count and peritoneal fluid neutrophils while a
significant increase of bone marrow lymphocyte count was observed when compared
with the CGN treated animal group. A significant modulation in differential leucocytic
count especially the drop in lymphocytic and eosinophilic percentage occurred. This
was associated with lower serum globulin and immunoglobulin G (IgG) in green tea-
drinking-CGN treated animal group in comparison to CGN treated animal groups. This
study explains the immunomodulatory role played by green tea in response to
inflammatory immunostimulant agent.


There is growing interest in the
tea is potent antioxidant, It has both
role of complementary and alternative
medicine in health and disease. Of the
effects (Fajun et al., 1998).
various herbal and botanical agents
Lau et al., (2002), evaluated the
used, tea (Camellia sinusis) has drawn
anti-inflammatory and hepato-protective
a great deal of interest (Gary et al.,
activities of the green tea. The epidem -
2001). Green tea is widely used in Asia
iologic observations and laboratory
and has also become popular in Western
studies have indicated that polyphenolic
countries. (Hofbauer et al., 1999). It is
compounds present in tea may reduce
cultivated in more than 30 countries
the risk of a variety of illnesses
(Mokhtar and Ahmed , 2000). Green
(Mokhtar and Ahmed, 2000). Zhu et al.

Full Paper (vol.9 paper# 9)

Molecular Identification of Three Argas Species Using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Amplification and Restriction Analysis o The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 9 : 112 - 121 Dec.2002

7861 2002

Molecular Identification of Three Argas Species Using Polymerase
Chain Reaction (PCR) Amplification and Restriction Analysis of the
Small-Subunit Ribosomal RNA Gene

Mohammed H. Awwad, Sahar M. Abou El kheir and Gehan H. Lashien
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Benha Branch


The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length
polymorphisms (RFLPs) of SrRNA gene of Argas species (~1800 bp) is a very useful
technique for differentiation of Argas persicus, Argas hermanni and Argas arboreus
species. The PCR/RFLPs profile of EaeI and EcoRI restriction endonucleases were
highly characteristic of the genetic interspecific levels and low genetic intraspecific
levels of the three species. Other enzymes proved that A. persicus and A. hermanni may
be a single or monophyletic species (SacII and SstII restriction endonucleases). AvaII
restriction enzyme showed that A. hermanni and A. arboreus could be a monophyletic
species. AvaI restriction endonuclease was the only restriction enzyme to prove that the
three Argas species may be polyphyletic species and identified uniquely by this enzyme.

Key words: Identification, Argas, RFLPs, SrRNA gene.


Ticks are beneficial to humans
the soft tick Argas spp. (Persicargas)
through the direct effects of their
arboreus (previously thought to be
feeding and as vectors for various
Argas persicus and hereafter referred to
agents of disease in both man and
as A. arboreus) and the hard tick
livestock (Sonenshine, 1991; Jongejan
Dermacentor andersoni have been
and Uilenberg, 1994; Noda et al., 1997
cultured in the yolk sacs of chicken
and Cumming, 1998). Tick-transmitted
embryos and found to be pathogenic for
bacterial pathogens are quite diverse
guinea pigs (Suitor and Weiss, 1961;
and include organisms belonging to the
Suitor, 1964 and Burgdorfer et al.,
genera Borrelia, Rickettsia, Francisella,
1973). The A. arboreus microbe has
Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Cowdria, and
been placed in the genus Wolbachia and
Coxiella (Sonenshine, 1993). Ticks also
named W. persica (Suitor and Weiss,
1961 and Suitor, 1964).
rickettsia- and wolbachia-like bacteria
Ticks have traditionally been
viewed as relatively host-specific, and it
endosymbionts (Hayes and Burgdorfer,
has frequently been assumed that their
1981 and Dasch and Weiss, 1992).
geographical distributions can be
Numerous reports have been published
determined by that of their host(s)
on the morphological appearance and
(Hoogstraal and Aeschlimann, 1982).
distribution of symbionts in various tick
In humans, ticks can cause severe toxic
species (Burgdorfer). Endosymbionts of
conditions such as paralyses and
112 Refree : Prof ; Dr. Eman Helal

Full Paper (vol.9 paper# 10)