Microsoft Word - 1.doc The Egyptian Journal of HosH
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e (2009) Vol., 36 : 380- 396

Therapeutic Potential of Green Tea Extract and Low Doses of -
Irradiation on Diabetic Nephropathy of Rats

Hanafy N.A. and Hanaa F. Waer
Radiation Biology Department, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology,
Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt


Introduction: Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most frequent and serious complications of
diabetes mellitus. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of green tea (GT) extract and
low doses of 0.5 Gy -radiation (R) on diabetic nephropathy (DN) of rats.
Materials and methods: Male Swiss albino rats were used in this study. DN was induced in
rats using streptozotocin (45 mg/kg body weight). The rats were divided into five groups DN,
DN+R, DN+GT, DN+GT+R and a sham treatment control group. Throughout the
experimental period (3and 6 weeks) animals body weight, glucose and insulin levels were
evaluated. Kidney functions assay (serum urea and creatinin) were recorded.
Histopathological observations in kidney tissue, DNA and glycogen intensity were also
Results: Diabetic rats exhibited many symptoms including loss of body weight, increase in
blood glucose level and decrease in serum insulin levels. Increase in serum urea and creatinin
levels. Diabetic kidney showed a moderate renal damage, multifocal clarifications and
vacuolations. Carbohydrates intensity showed a significant increase and DNA intensity
showed many alterations. Improvements in glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions were
demonstrated in the diabetic rat group exposed to low doses of -radiation or supplemented by
green tea either alone or combined in addition to amelioration in glucose, insulin urea and
creatinin levels.
The present study demonstrates the efficacy of low doses of - radiation and in
reducing diabetes-induced functional and histological alterations in the kidneys. The longterm
control of blood glucose levels using low doses of -radiation or green tea either alone or
combined could prevent the progression of diabetes mellitus, and therefore, nephropathy
could be prevented.


failure. There is much debate over the
Diabetic nephropathy is one of the major
health benefits of green tea extracts, and it
microvascular complications of diabetes.
is common to drink tea with meals.
The renal lesions, whether related to type 1
In the previous studies, it has been
or 2 diabetes mellitus, are similar
reported that green tea polyphenols have
(Fioretto and Mauer, 2007). At present,
antioxidant properties, and green tea is a
patients with diabetes mellitus in the world
useful agent to protect against protein
were increased by millions, and the
diseases (Yokozawa et al., 1996, 1997,
maintaining prolonged dialysis therapy is a
1998; Nakagawa and Yokozawa, 2002
great burden on patients both mentally and
and Nakagawa et al., 2002). Green tea
physically, and social problems, including
polyphenols were also indicated as
financial issues, have also been raised.
Therefore, the daily consumption of food
development of diabetic nephropathy
and drink containing effective agents for
induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection
(Yokozawa et al., 2005). Alternatively, of
progression of diabetic complications has
the catechins, (_)-epigallocatechin 3-O-
been receiving attention to reduce the
gallate (EGCg) is known to be the most
number of patients with end-stage renal
abundant in green tea. Recently, it has

Full Paper (vol.36 paper# 1)

Microsoft Word - 2.doc The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) Vol., 36 : 397 - 405

El-Habibi, E.M.; Sirag, H.M. and Edrees, G.M.
Zoology Dept., Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

BACKGROUND: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) is a toxic material known to induce lipid
peroxidation and liver damage.
The possible protective roles that involved by chitosan or chitosan-Cu complex against CCl4
induced liver intoxication were investigated in male rats.
RESULTS: CCl4 administred at dose 20 mg/kg body weight i.p., exceed malondialdehyde
(MDA) and protein carbonyle (PC), depleted superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione
(GSH), in concomitant with marked increase in investigated liver function parameters , alanine
aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT, AST), impaired serum and liver total
protein , albumin and globulin. An elevation in serum and hepatic total lipids, total cholesterol,
triglycerides and serum LDL and VLDL levels as well as a low level of HDL were recorded. In
the same time, there was a significant increase in sodium and iron contents in the serum while a
significant decrease in potassium and zinc contents were recorded.
Animals pretreated with chitosan (200 mg /kg body weight) orally by stomach tube for 21
consecutive days prior to CCl4 challenge significantly attenuated most of the tested parameters,
strengthen antioxidant defense system, ameliorated liver function effectively. Chitosan-Cu
complex has a protective effect by a higher degree than that of chitosan only.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that pretreatment with chitosan-Cu complex has
higher hepato-protective effects than that of only chitosan against CCl4 induced toxicity in rat.
Key words: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) Chitosan lipid peroxidation liver functions.


Liver disease is considered to be a serious
unique biological activities (Xue et al.,
health problem, as the liver is an important
2001). Chiang et al., (2000), showed that
organ for the detoxification and deposition
the scavenging effect of chitosan on
of endogenous and exogenous substances
(Yang et al., 2008).
choline and linoleate lyposomes in vitro.
tetrachloride (CCl4) can rapidly lead to both
Le Houx and Grondin (1993) showed that
chitosan maintained adequate cholesterol
production of free radicals and acute liver
homeostasis in rats, despite a greatly intake
injuries such as centrilobular necrosis and
steatosis in rats (Weber et al., 2003).
complexes with many metal ions because it
Chitosan, is a polysaccharide of marine
contains multiple amino, hydroxyl and
origin which is prepared from the shells of
acetamide groups (Varma et al., 2004).
crustaceans (Sini et al., 2005). Chitosan has
Various copper complexes have been tested
attracted much attention as a biomedical
for antibacterial and antitumer properties
material, owing to its antitumer, antiulcer,
(Hirano, 1995). The copper complexes
immunostimulatory, antibacterial and other
interact with DNA, leading to chemically


Full Paper (vol.36 paper# 2)

Microsoft Word - 3.doc The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) Vol., 36 : 406 - 421

Relation between Antioxidants and Pollution on Experimental Animals
Madiha, F. Hassan*,Nazira A. Shehata*,Abd El-Monem H. Darwish** and Hanan M . Abd
* Biochemistry and Nutrition Department, Women's College. Ain Shams University
** Nutritional Biochemistry and Metabolism . Nutrition Institute,Ministry of Health, Cairo
Objective: The aim of the present work is to study the protective effect of some
antioxidants and trace elements against the hazardous effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)
on hamsters for the possibility of further application on humans.
Methods: One hundred twenty hamsters weighing 104-128g were divided into 13 groups
as follows: 1-Negative Control group fed standard diet, 2-positive control group given
carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) only , 3-CCl4 + zinc, 4 - CCl4 + -carotene,5- CCl4 + -
tocopherol,6- CCl4 + selenium, 7-CCl4 + vitamin C,8- CCl4 + zinc + - carotene, 9-CCl4 +
zinc + vitamin C , 10-CCl4 + zinc + -tocopheral,11-CCl4 + selenium + -carotene, 12-
CCl4 + selenium + vitamin C and 13-CCl4 + selenium + -tocopheral.
Results: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has a direct toxic effect on liver and kidney.
Depending on biochemical results, the more antioxidants of liver protection against CCl4
toxicity are tocopherol, followed by selenium, selenium + - carotene, vitamin C, zinc +
carotene and selenium + tocopherol. The more antioxidant for kidney protection
against CCl4 toxicity is carotene followed by selenium, zinc + carotene, zinc +
tocopherol, and zinc + vitamin C. Conclusion: Trace elements should not be given
individually especially zinc or selenium as deleterious effects, in spite of its protective
Key words: Carbon tetrachloride-Antioxidants


Antioxidants are organic components, they
requiring these trace elements for their
act in the body as scavengers intercepting
catalysis (Hirayama et al., 1993).
reactive molecules called free radicals
Pollution is one of the major problems the
before they have a chance to damage cells
world faces nowdays. Pollution of indoor
(Wu, 1997). The general strategy for
air, water, soil, clay, groundwater, warm
prevention and treatment of liver damage
ocean surface water and shallow wells is
includes reducing the production of reactive
caused by dangerous gases including carbon
metabolites by using antioxidants (Wu et
tetrachloride (CCl4) resulting from factories,
al., 1999; Bansal et al., 2005)
industries, waste water, pestesides used in
Free radicals are highly reactive and attack
membranes or lipoproteins, start lipid
management (Kuo and Hlnes,1988).
peroxidation, damage proteins and cause
Recently the rapid and large industrial
DNA mutation. Free radicals are result of
development in Egypt has lead to new and
pollution, aging, malnutrition, radiation and
great pollution potential hence there are
oxidation. Oxidation is triggered by
large amounts of air pollutants including
environmental pollutants as well as by
CCl4 and benzene. However, the evaluation
individual own metabolism (Halliwell,
of public awareness towards environmental
1997).Trace elements are micronutrients.
pollution side by side with the governmental
They include: Zinc (Zn), which is essential
efforts to put the restricting laws for
constituent of superoxide dismutase and of
environmental protection necessitate great
glutathione peroxidase. Both enzymes
care with pollution control measures
protect tissues against oxidative stress
(Mahrus, 1997).

Full Paper (vol.36 paper# 3)

Microsoft Word - 4.doc The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) Vol., 36 : 421 - 433

The analgesic and sedative properties of dexmedetomidine
infusion after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty
W.Abd El Megid * and Ahmed M. Nassar
1Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Ain Shams University.
2Department of ENT, Al Azhar University.

Background: Dexmedetomidine is an alpha2 - adrenergic agonist with sedative and analgesic
properties. This study aimed to investigate if the use of continuous dexmedetomidine infusion
with i.v. morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) could improve postoperative analgesia
while reducing opioid consumption and opioid-related side effects.
Materials & methods:
In this prospective randomized, double-blinded, controlled study, 24
patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome undergoing uvulopalatopharyngoplasty were
assigned to two groups. Group D received a loading dose of dexmedetomidine 1g kg i.v., 30
min before the anticipated end of surgery, followed by a continuous infusion at a rate of 0.6 g
kg hr for 24 hr. Group P received a volume-matched bolus and infusion of placebo. In both
groups, postoperative pain was initially controlled by i.v. morphine titration and then PCA with
morphine. Cumulative PCA morphine consumption, pain intensities, sedation scores,
cardiovascular and respiratory variables and narcotic-related adverse effects were recorded for 48
h after operation.
Extubation time was significantly prolonged in dexmedetomidine group (167 vs. 116
min p=0.074) in the placebo group. Visual analogue scale scores were significantly greater during
the first 2h after tracheal extubation in the placebo group than in the dexmedetomidine group. The
time to first analgesic request was significantly longer in the dexmedetomidine group than in the
placebo group (2111 vs. 94min; p=0.002). Compared with group P, patients in group D
required 52.7% less morphine by PCA during the first 24h postoperative period, whereas levels of
sedation were similar between the 2 groups at each observational time point. Fewer patients in
group D experienced nausea and vomiting than those in group P (P< 0.05). There was no
bradycardia, hypotension, or respiratory depression. Continuous dexmedetomidine infusion may
be a useful anesthetic adjuvant for patients who are susceptible to narcotic-induced respiratory

uvulopalatopharyngoplasty significantly reduces the amount of PCA morphine used by the
patients postoperatively without affecting their ventilatory parameters and was associated with
fewer morphine-related side effects. This novel drug could become a useful anesthetic adjuvant
for patients with obstructive sleep apnea who are susceptible to narcotic-induced respiratory
Key words:
Dexmedetomidine; Uvulopalatophayngoplasty; Morphine; Patient controlled analgesia.


women in middle age and has been
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a
identified as a major health problem (Kim
syndrome characterized by periodic, partial
& Lee 2006).
or complete upper airway obstruction
Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (uppp) is still
resulting in the disruption of sleep and
the most commonly performed surgical
procedure for the treatment of OSA (Zodpe
physiologic consequences. It has been
et al., 2006). it is safe and effective
estimated to affect 4% of men and 2% of
(Lundkvist et al., 2009) Pain, which is

Full Paper (vol.36 paper# 4)

Microsoft Word - 5.doc The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) Vol., 36 : 434 - 445

Sonotubometry Findings in Patients with combined airway disease with
and without Associated Eosinophilic Otitis Media
Ahmed Nasar, Mohammed Abd Allah, Mohammed Attia, Hasan Abd Al Naby
Department of ENT, Al Azhar University.

Background: Active opening of the eustachian tube is accomplished by contraction of the
paratubal muscles. Disturbance of any of the ET functions may contribute to the development
of otitis media (OM) with effusion and other middle ear diseases. Sonotubometry seems to be
the most "physiologic" method for assessment of ET function and has the advantage that it
can be performed on ears with an intact tympanic membrane and without the use of a pressure

The aim of this study was to compare the Eustachian tube function using sonotubometry in
patients with combined airway disease associated with Eosinophilic otitis media with that
having combined airway disease without otitis media.
Patients and methods: This study was applied on 45 patients divided into 3 groups each of
1st group is the control group, 2nd group patients with combined airway disease without
Eosinophilic otitis media, 3rd group patients with combined airway disease associated with
Eosinophilic otitis media.
Results: Our results explains that the tubal opening durations were significantly longer in
patients of EOM group than in patients with combined airway disease without EOM group
and also the normal control group.
Conclusion: Sonotubometry can be performed in patients with or without an intact tympanic
membrane and under physiological conditions. Sonotubometry is also inexpensive, painless,
and easy to perform in both adults and children. Therefore, it has great potential value as a
diagnostic tool for individuals with suspected ET disease.
Key words : Sonotubometry; eosionphilic Otitis media; Eustachian tube; airway disease

The most important functions of the ET
Recently, there have been some reports of
are protection, clearance, and ventilation
adult patients with intractable otitis media
of the middle ear (Bylander and
(OM) with effusion (OME) or chronic OM
stenstrom, 1998)& (Sad, 1997) Frequent
(COM) associated with bronchial asthma.
active opening of the ET allows
ventilation of the middle ear and
characteristics markedly different from
equilibration of pressure changes. Active
those of patients with common OM.
opening is accomplished by contraction of
Those patients experience hearing loss for
the paratubal muscles. The tensor veli
a prolonged period of time and sometimes
palatini muscle plays the most important
role. Contraction of the muscles occurs
suddenly.(Tomioka et al 1997), (Suzuki; et
during swallowing, yawning, or movement
al 2004) Most of the patients also
of the mandible. Humans swallow
exhibited nasal polyposis or chronic
approximately 1000 times a day, but not
every swallowing action leads to ET
underwent nasal surgical procedures
opening with effective gas transfer into the
(Nagamine et al., 2002) (Suzuki et al.,
middle ear (Bluestone et al., 1972)
Disturbance of any of the ET functions
In patients with bronchial asthma, a high
may contribute to the development of
prevalence of nasal polyposis is well
otitis media (OM) with effusion and other
documented (Settipane, 1996).
middle ear diseases (Straetemans et al.,
However; the incidence of EOM is lower
2001), (Van Heerbeek et al., 2001).
than that of nasal polyposis in patients

Full Paper (vol.36 paper# 5)

Microsoft Word - 6.doc The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) Vol., 36 : 447 - 455

Role of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1)
of Community Acquired Pneumonia in
Mansoura University Hospitals (MUHs)
Tahani . A.M * ,Mohammed . F.EL-K** , Ghada .M . EL-Nady** , Olfat.M.W.
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science , Immunolgy Department, Mansoura
Microbiology Department ,Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University**.

Background:Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung that is most often caused by infection with
bacteria, viruses, or other organisms. Occasionally, inhaled chemicals that irritate the lungs can cause
pneumonia, Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is defined as pneumonia not acquired in a
hospital or a long-term care facility. Despite the availability of potent new antimicrobials and effective
vaccines, ICAM-1 is a cytokine inducible adhesion molecule expressed on the cells of multiple
lineages at sites of inflammation.
Key words:Pneumonia, community acquired pneumonia, ICAM-1.

Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, a
pneumonia, particularly community-acquired
member of the immunoglobulin supergene
pneumonia (Lo et al, 1991). The aim of the
family, is expressed on a variety of leukocytes
presnt study was to determine whether the
and endothelial cells (Springer, 1990). Release
concentrations of the intercellular adhesion
of cytokines at sites of inflammation causes
molecule ICAM-1 could be related to clinical
cell activation and upregulation of ICAM-1
status, bacterial
(Rothlein et al., 1991) Pneumonia, on the
pathogens, and diagnosis them as potential
other hand, is a major cause of death due to
markers of the severity of infection.
infectious diseases worldwide (Pinner et al,
Patient and Methods:
1996). Bacterial pathogens commonly enter
Patients :This study was conducted on 50
the lung via aspiration from the pharynx which
cases. Ages of cases ranged from 4 to 60 years.
happens during sleep (Huxley et al, 1978). In
( patient 40 and control 10), were hospitalized
the face of this persistent exposure to microbial
in Mansoura University Hospitals.
pathogens, the lung has a complex group of
protective mechanisms so that repeated low-
Sample collection: Sputum samples were
level entry of bacteria in the peripheral lung
collected in sterile container. Under complete
only rarely results in pneumonia (Green et al,
aseptic conditions samples were transmitted
1977). In addition to cytokines, enhanced
immediately to the laboratory of microbiology
expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)
at diagnostic and infection control unit
such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1
(MDICU) in Medical microbiology and
(ICAM-1), E-selectin, or platelet-endothelial
immunology department , and were subjected
cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) plays an
to the various examination or kept at 4oC
important role in the pathophysiology of
(Cheesbrough et al., 2000).
infection. It has been thought that the
Methods :
expression of ICAM-1 on the type I aleveolar
1-sputum cultures:A standard calibrated loop
epithelial cell (AEC) surface plays an
(0.01 ml) was flamed thoroughly and allowed
important role in host defense through the
to cool without touching any surface. The
sputum samples were mixed thoroughly. The
antimicrobial activity against bacteria, for
loop was inserted vertically into sputum to
example Klebsiella pneumonia. Study of
ensure the proper amount of specimen adhered
adhesion molecules has been limited in

Full Paper (vol.36 paper# 6)

Microsoft Word - 7.doc The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) Vol., 36 : 456 - 467

Teratological Effects of Gamma-Irradiation during three Gestaional Intervals in

*Elham A. Al-Shaibani, **Nadia, H. Ismail, ***Omaima S. Eissa
Mohamed I. Rady and Zaki, T. Zaki
*Department of Biology- Faculty of Science, Sana'a University, **Department of Zoology,
Faculty of Grils, Ain Shams University, ***Radiation Biology Dept., National Center for
Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority and Department of Zoology,
Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University
Aim of the work:
The present study aimed to evaluate the teratological effects of gamma-irradiation
during three intervals of gestation; pre-implantation, organogenesis and fetal periods in rats.
Material and methods: Four groups of pregnant rats were used in this study; the first one (GI) served
as control. The second (GII), third (GIII) and fourth (GIV) groups were subjected to whole body -
radiation at a sub-lethal single dose level of 4 Gy at the third day, 10th day and 14th day of gestation
respectively. Pregnant rats were sacrificed at the 20th day of gestation, implantation sites, resorption,
embryonic death, fetal death, growth retarded fetuses, external malformations and skeletal
malformation were recorded.
Results: The results showed that whole body -irradiation caused resorption in the embryos of
pregnant rats especially in those exposed during the pre-implantation period than the two other
periods. The embryonic and fetal deaths were prominent in the fetuses maternally exposed to whole
body -irradiation during the organogenesis period. The highest percentage of growth retarded fetuses
was found in fetuses maternally exposed to -rays during the organogenesis period followed by fetuses
maternally exposed to -irradiation during the fetal period and then fetuses maternally exposed to -
irradiation during the pre-implantation period. The skeletal malformations as a result of -irradiation
were mostly represented in less ossification in the skull bones, less ossification in the vertebral centra
and wavy ribs. The most affected fetal skeleton was perceptive in GIII (fetuses maternally exposed to
-irradiation during the organogenesis period) followed by GII and then GIV.
Keywords: -irradiation, Pregnant rats, Teratology

The teratogenic effects of embryonic and fetal
the first days (2-5) of development, the embryo
irradiation are worth noting from point of view
remained isolated in the oviduct by the
of biological indicators of radiation effect.
occlusion of isthmus-ampular and uterine-tubal
Irradiation of mammalian embryos can
junctions. In this region, there were nutrients
produce a spectrum of morphological changes,
and specific factors needed for its survival and
ranging from temporary stunting of growth to
development until the blastocyst phase, at
severe organ defects and death (Brent, 1984;
which time the utero-tubal junction opened for
Uma Devi and Hande, 1990 and Bang et al.,
the blastocyst to pass into the uterine cornua
2002). The effects on mean fetal birth weight
(Croxatto et al., 1991). Direct or indirect
of irradiation in utero with gamma rays at the
effects of xenobiotics including irradiation
different days of post coitus were well-
must cause alterations in the pre-implantation
established (Zhou and Wang, 1982; Michel
embryo development (Gu et al., 1997 and
and Fritz-Niggli, 1986, Sharma and Saini,
Maganha et al., 2006).
2003 and Jacquet, 2004).
Nash and Gowen (1982) reported that the
Developing mammalian embryo is more
period of organogenesis is more radiosensitive
sensitive to ionizing radiation than adult; many
than the fetal growth period as far as
experimental studies have been shown that
resorption, litter size and mortality of young
radiation-induced abnormalities in mammals
ones are concerned and the gestation day 11.5
are closely related to the period of
is close to stage of maximum susceptibility for
development at which radiation is given (Saini
growth retardation. Khera (1985) correlated
et al., 1985; Croxatto et al., 1991; Sharma and
the frequency of fetal malformations to the
Saini, 2003 and Maganha et al., 2006). During
maternal toxicity as transient or permanent


Full Paper (vol.36 paper# 7)

Microsoft Word - 8.doc The Egyptian journal of hospital medicine (2009)vol.,36: 468 - 482
Wagieh k.Baiomy; Abdel-mawgood Anas; Mamdooh Ghaly; Ashraf M. Moustafa;
Atef I.Mohamed and Wagieh Mansour
Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine Al Azhar University

Background: The present work was based on the evaluation of histological, histochemical,
and quantitative study on the adrenal medulla of the white albino rat in the different post natal
age period.
Material and methods:Sixty male albino rats were used in this study.
The rats were classified to 4 main groups as follows:
- Group one : One week old albino rats.
- Group two: One month old albino rats.
- Group three: Three months old albino rats.
- Group four: Senile rats.
Three main parameters were performed in this study, the first was the study of the
morphological changes in the adrenal medulla in the different postnatal age groups. The
second was concerned with the histochemical studies while the last parameter was the
quantitative studies on the gland volume as well as its cellular count. These three parameters
were performed by using different staining techniques.
Results: The results showed that medullary cells in the early age groups were arranged in
non-differentiated groups and become more differentiated in the older age groups. Both
reticular and elastic fibers in the older age groups showed a definite increase especially at the
region of corticomedullary zone. The different types of chromaffin cells were more observed
at the old age groups. The concentration of ascorbic acid granules was more marked in the
senile group. The quantitative changes were in the form of increased medullary volume
especially in the old age.
The number of chromaffin cells as well as the concentration of ascorbic acid contents was
more noticed in the old age group.
The differentiation of both divisions of the adrenal gland was not noticed in the
early age groups. Cellular and fibrous differentiations were more seen in older age groups
which may reflects an idea about the degree of gland maturation.
Keywords: Adrenal medulla , chromaffin cells , ascorbic acid .


The adrenal medulla represents one of the
(Junqueira et al., 2003). Fresh sections of
most important structures in the human
the adrenal gland show its covering
body that needs extensive research study.
capsule which is formed of collagenous
Catecholamines secreted by the medullary
connective tissue, the cortical tissue is
Chromaffin cells have many important
yellow and peripherally situated while the
roles in both newly born and adults.
medulla is reddish and vascular in the
The adrenal gland was first described by
central location of the gland ( Neville and
Eustachius in 1563 and its importance
Hare, 1982).
was later recognized by the works of
The adrenal gland is composed of two
(Anderson and Axel, 1997).
tissues with different ontogenetic origin,
The adrenal glands are embedded in
the cortex and the medulla. The cortex
adipose tissues at the cranial pole of each
develops from the mesoderm but the
kidney (Don and Ronald., 2002). Their
medulla of neural crest lineage origin
weight and size vary with age and
(Keith and Persaud,1993). During the
physiological condition of the individual
fetal life, a layer of fetal or provisional

Full Paper (vol.36 paper# 8)

Microsoft Word - 9.doc The Egyptian journal of hospital medicine (2009)vol.,36: 483 - 498
Histological assessment of the possible protective role of glimepiride against
progression of experimentally induced diabetic nephropathy in rats
Magda M. Hagras, Sahar M. Gamal*and Hanan A. Amin*
Departments of Pharmacology and Histology*, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal and
Cairo* University.

Introduction: little is known about the potential effects induced by sulphonylureas independently of
their anti-hyperglycemic action. The present study examined the effect of glimepiride treatment on
the progression of renal histological changes in diabetic rats to determine whether therapeutic
intervention with these agents would prevent the onset and progression of renal complications or
not. Material and methods: forty-eight adult male albino rats were equally divided into four
groups; control, normal rats receiving glimepiride, streptozotocin induced diabetic non-treated rats
and glimepiride-treated diabetic rats. Blood glucose level measurement and histological evaluation
of renal tissue elements using H&E, Masson trichrome, and PAS reaction techniques at four and
eight weeks after treatment were performed. Stained sections were subjected to some morphometric
measurements namely, glomerular tuft area (GTA), mesangial matrix index (MMI) and area per cent
of connective tissue (CT). Statistical analysis for significance of obtained data was performed using
analysis of variance and student-T test. Results: Glimepiride did not cause any histological renal
impairment when used solely. Induction of diabetes had a significant negative impact on renal
structure. In addition to significant elevation of blood glucose levels, increased kidney and kidney to
body weight ratio was estimated. A variety of histological changes affecting the glomerular and
tubular elements of renal tissue were detected and were more intense in the eighth week of the
experiment. A significant increase in GTA, MMI and area per cent of C.T. were also found in
diabetic rats. All the tested parameters showed a significant improvement in the glimepiride-treated
group. Conclusion: glimepiride could attenuate most of the histological changes produced in case of
Recommendation: glimepiride could be used in Type I and type II diabetics to protect or slow
down the progression of diabetic nephropathy.
Key Words: Glimepiride, Diabetic nephropathy, Kidney, Protection.

Streptozotocin is well known for its selective
continued to be an interesting area of search
pancreatic islet beta-cell cytotoxicity and has
(Krishna et al., 2004).
been extensively used to induce severe and
The progression of renal complications
associated with long-term poorly controlled
experimental animals (Mitra et al., 1996). It
diabetes mellitus occurs in human over a time
impairs glucose oxidation, decreases insulin
course of ten to twenty five years. The
biosynthesis and secretion (Mir et al., 2008).
histoarchitectural changes associated with the
disease progression are well described in
complications in diabetes are the major
causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetic
subjects. Therefore, the search for more
basement membrane, mesangeal expansion
effective and safer hypoglycemic agents has
and interstitial fibrosis (Dalla Vestra et al.,

Full Paper (vol.36 paper# 9)

Microsoft Word - 10.doc The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) Vol., 36 : 499 - 534
Mohamed Abdel Hafez; Amal Mostafa Abbas; Dina Mohamed Radwan and Zeinab El
Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University

Background/Objective:Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are c-kit positive immunoreactive cells
which are thought to play an important role in the control of gut motility.The work aimed at
studying the morphology of ICC and precisely localize their regional and transmural pattern
of distribution in normal human alimentary tract.
Material and Methods:The study included 102 normal human alimentary tract specimens
obtained from male patients with a mean age 37.928.53. All sections were stained with
hematoxylin and eosin and c-kit immunohistochemical staining. Immunohistochemically
stained sections were submitted for a computer aided image analytical study to detect the area
percent of immunoreactive cells. The data obtained was statistically analyzed.
Results: ICC could not be demonstrated in H&E stained sections. Immunohistochemically,
two morphological subtypes of ICC were recognized, a spindle bipolar and stellate multipolar
forms. ICC were detected in the myenteric plexus layer of the esophagus, corpus, pylorus,
small intestine, colon and rectum. Intramuscular ICC could be demonstrated in the esophagus,
fundus, corpus, pylorus, colon, rectum and anal canal. ICC at the deep muscular plexus were
found only in the small intestine. In the pylorus, colon and rectum, ICC were also found at the
submucosal border of the circular muscle layer.
The wide distribution of ICC all over the human alimentary tract is compatible
with their physiological role being important mediators of gut motility.
Key Words:
interstitial cells of Cajal ; ICC ; alimentary tract ; immunohistochemistry; c-kit


Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are groups of
stromal tumors (Kindblom et al., 1998),
cells found throughout the gut from the
diabetic gastrointestinal dysfunction (Zhang
esophagus to the anus. ICC are thought to
et al., 2002) and chronic idiopathic intestinal
play an important role in the control of gut
pseudo-obstruction (Jain et al., 2003). ICC
motor activity; acting as pacemakers
(Thuneberg, 1982), intermediaries in the
hematoxylin and eosin stained sections
neural control of gut muscular activity
(Hagger et al., 1998). They were hardly
(Daniel and Posey-Daniel, 1984), and
recognized by the electron microscope
(Faussone-Pellegrini et al., 1990) and
(Farraway et al., 1995). The particular
immunoelectron microscopy (Wang et al.,
function that ICC can perform may be
2000). The discovery of the selective
dependent on their location within the
expression of the kit receptor in ICC within
gastrointesinal tract (Ward et al.,2002).
the alimentary tract and its crucial role in the
Abnormal distribution of ICC has been
normal development of ICC and their
reported in several human diseases and
pacemaker activity has produced a powerful
abnormal functions of ICC might actually be
new tool in the investigation of these cells
involved in many disorders of the
and their function in normal and pathological
gastrointestinal tract (Wedel et al., 2002).
conditions (Maeda et al.,1992). The
Among the gut motility disorders having
expression of c-kit has been evaluated by
direct relation to ICC are the infantile
mRNA detection, flowcytometry as well as
hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (Langer et al.,
immunohistochemistry (Arber et al., 1998).
1995), Hirschsprung's disease (Vande-
The distribution of ICC in normal human
rwinden et al., 1996), gastrointestinal
adults was difficult to define because there

Full Paper (vol.36 paper# 10)

Microsoft Word - 11.doc The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) Vol., 36 : 535 - 550
Melatonin pretreatment attenuates diazinon-induced testicular
damage in mice
El-Mazoudy R. H*. and Abdou H. M.
Zoology department, Faculty of science, Alexandria University,Egypt.

Background: Diazinon is one of widely used organophosphrous pesticides, can affect both
animals and man even after a single exposure. It has a dual toxicity due to acetylcholinestrase
inhibition and formation of free oxygen radicals .So, the current work aimed to evaluate the
effects of diazinon on the mice testes and the possible protective effect of melatonin.
Material and Methods: Male CD-1 adult mice were divided into 6 groups, (1) control
group,(2) melatonin group 10mg/kg,(3) diazinon group (30mg/kg), (4) diazinon group
(60mg/kg),(5) diazinon 30mg + melatonin and (6) diazinon 60mg/kg + melatonin. Diazinon
was orally administrated 1 and 28 days of treatment, whereas, melatonin was administrated
intraperitoneally at a single dose. Testicular damage was examined by using hematoxyline and
eosin staining.
Results: Diazinon treated groups diminished the plasma acetylcholinestrase activity on day 1
of treatment. Morphometrical analysis showed a decrease in seminiferous thickness (day 1 and
28), with increased testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (day28). Melatonin
pre-treatment prevented alterations induced by diazinon, except diminution of
acetylcholinestrase activity.
These results suggest that testicular damage observed post-treatment might be
due to elevated concentration of free oxygen radicals (ROS) with diazinon while, pretreatment
with a single dose of melatonin is a potentially beneficial agent to reduce testicular damage
in adult mice probably by decreasing oxidative stress.
Key words:
Diazinon, Melatonin, Superoxide dismutase, Germinal epithelium Acetylcholin-
estrase, Testosterone
*Corresponding author address: Zoology department, Faculty of science, Alexandria
University, Egypt.
Tel. +20173251813; Fax. +203-3911794.
E-mail address: (Dr. Reda H. El-Mazoudy).


Organophosphorus (OP) compounds
pesticides cause adverse effects on
parameters (De-Blaquiere et al., 2000;
insecticides, helminthecides, ascarici-
Yehia et al.,2007 and Al-Shinn-
des, nematicides, fungicides and bacte-
awy,2008). Their mechanism of action
ricides for 5 decades (Reece and
is based on the inhibition of acetyl
Handson, 1982 and Yehia et al.,
cholinesterase (AChE) activity through
2007). Pesticides are occasionally used
covalent binding to its serine residues,
indiscriminately in large amounts caus-
thus producing a detention of the nerve
ing environmental pollution. Residual
impulses that leads to death (Kalender
amounts of OP pesticides have been
detected in the soil, water bodies,
frequently used OP insecticides, O-O
vegetables, grains and other food prod-
ucts (John et al.,2001 and Poet et
al.,2004). Toxicities of OP
non), a synthetic nonsystemic subst-

Full Paper (vol.36 paper# 11)

Microsoft Word - 12.doc The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) Vol., 36: 451 - 466
Aging effect on rabbit's lens fibers; A scanning electron microscopic study
Sahar Mohammad Gamal
Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University
Introduction: The eye lens is a minute organ with complex structure that plays an indispensible
role in the process of vision. It is composed mainly of modified epithelial cells that form a unique
type of fibers. This study was performed to highlight the morphological variations of lens fibers in
different age groups in rabbits' lenses. These variations in fibers' structure may have a great impact
on the optical properties of the lens. Material and methods: Fifteen white male rabbits of different
ages ranging from one month to four and half years were equally divided into three groups; young,
adult and aged. Their lenses were dissected and processed for scanning electron microscopy. Gross
lenses' diameters and A-P axis lengths were assessed using digitalized gross photomicrographs
from dissecting microscope. Also, diameter of lens fibers was measured digitally for comparative
purposes among the groups. Statistical analysis for significance of obtained data was performed
using analysis of variance and student-T test. Results: The average equatorial diameter was 6.1%
and 14.5% larger in adult and aged lenses than young ones. The average A-P axis length was
14.1% in adult and 21.7% in aged lenses more than in young lenses as well. Lens fibers exhibited
some variations in the pattern of lateral interdigitations that became more branched with folding.
Fiber diameter demonstrated an increase from young to adult lenses then a decrease in aged lens
was noticed. Conclusion: Lens fibers undergo some morphological variations by age progression
in the form of compaction in addition to changes in the appearance of ball and socket
interdigitations. These changes can be correlated to some age-related optical disturbances as senile
prespyopia and cataract. Recommendation: Age-related changes in the morphology of lens fibers
should be considered in any experimental study including the lens to avoid interpretation bias and
get more reliable results.
Key words
: Lens fibers, lateral interdigitations, aging, compaction, scatter and scanning electron


The lens of the eye is a transparent cellular
referred to as lens fibers. They keep growing
structure that focuses light on the retina. The
in anterior and posterior directions. At areas
tissue of the eye lens is unique as it must be
where lens fibers converge and meet end-to-
strong, flexible and completely transparent.
end, the anterior and posterior sutures are
Its transparency is mainly due to its internal
formed (Kessel and Kardon, 1979).
structure, biochemistry of its constituents,
Fiber cell differentiation, in addition to
cellular elongation, is characterized by the
Additionally, the lens is devoid of any blood
synthesis of certain crystallin proteins, and
vessels, capillaries or nerves (Kresti, 2004).
the degradation of all membrane-bound
The lens is normally surrounded by a
organelles, including nuclei (Piatigorsky,
transparent elastic capsule, which is a very
1981). This results in the formation of an
thick basal lamina of a single layer of
organelle-free zone near the center of the lens
cuboidal lens epithelium underneath. These
(within the cells directly in the light
cells are found at the anterior, intermediate
path).The mechanism by which organelles are
and equatorial zone of the lens (Maisel et al.,
disassembled is not entirely known, but it is
1981). At the equator, these epithelial cells
documented that the endoplasmic reticulum,
continue to divide giving rise to highly
mitochondria, and nuclei are rapidly and
elongated cells with ribbon-like appearance
synchronously degraded (Bassnett, 1995).


Full Paper (vol.36 paper# 12)

Microsoft Word - 13.doc The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) Vol., 36: 567 - 584

Laila M. Elshall
Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University

Introduction and aim of work: thyroid hormone is known to play a critical role in the development
and growth of the testis. So, this study was designed to compare between the effect of transient and
persistent neonatal hypothyroidism on the testis of adult rats. Material and Methods: Thirty newborn
rats (1 day old) were classified equally into control group and two experimental groups. In
experimental group I, the transient hypothyroidism was induced in neonates by giving their lactating
mothers 0.05%, 6-propyl-2 thiouracil (PTU) through drinking water for 30 days after birth then the
treatment was withdrawal for 60 days. In experimental group II, the persistent hypothyroidism was
induced by giving the neonates 0.05% PTU through their mother milk until weaning then directly
through drinking water for 90 days after birth. After 90 days postpartum, all animals were
anaesthetized and their testes were dissected out and processed for light and electron microscope
examination. Results: In experimental group I, the testes of transient hypothyroid rats appeared with
large seminiferous tubules (ST) that the length of their diameters and the height of their lining
epithelium were significantly increased as compared to those of control rats. They were lined by many
Sertoli cells, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, early spermatides and late spermatids.
The interstitial spaces contained some Leydig cells and few fluid. In experimental group II, the testes
of persistent hypothyroid rats appeared with small ST that the length of their diameters and the height
of their lining epithelium were significantly decreased as compared to those of control rats. They were
lined by thin disorganized germinal epithelium containing many Sertoli cells and few germ cells.
Many sloughed degenerating cells and large multinucleated giant cells were seen in the lumen of ST.
The interstitial spaces contained many connective tissue cells, congested blood vessels, excessive
collagen fibers and abundant fluid. Electron microscope examination, revealed Sertoli cells which
were surrounded by wide spaces due to loss of germ cells. They contained distorted mitochondria,
nuclei with peripheral heterochromatin condensation and free processes due to loss of tight junction
between them. In conclusion, the present study revealed that the neonatal transient hypothyroidism
enhanced the growth of the testes that they contained large seminiferous tubules with many germ cells.
While, the persistent hypothyroidism induced testicular atrophy with degeneration of germ cells. So,
estimation of thyroid hormone level is recommended in all neonates immediately after birth for early
diagnosis and treatment of thyroid hormone deficiency to prevent serious adverse effect of
hypothyroidism on the testis.


The thyroid gland develops from the floor of
Some of their most prominent effects occur
the primitive pharynx and begins to synthesize
during fetal development and early childhood
and secrete T4 by 17 days of gestation
while several
(Morreale de Escobaret et al.,1985).
organs undergo significant morphological and
The most numerous cell population in the gland
physiological changes(Choksi et al.,2003).
is the thyroid follicular cells which are
The testis has been classically described as a
responsible for secretion of iodedtyrosine
thyroid hormone unresponsive tissue, first, it
derived hormones. They exert important effects
has been thought that delayed gonadal
on development, growth and metabolism of
maturation observed in hypothyroid animals
and man has been attributed to a reduction of


Full Paper (vol.36 paper# 13)

Microsoft Word - 14.doc The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) Vol., 36: 585 - 607
Effect of Nonionizing Radiation onThe Cerebellum of Neonatal Mice

Morphological, Histochemical And Ultrastructural Study

Samir A. Nassar
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt

( Received 13 December 2008 ; accepted 3 January 2009 )


Although the use of mobile telephones is common, increasing and beneficial, it
is still considered as an environmental pollutant nowaday. This is because these devices require
to be held close to the head and the exposure effects on the brain remain controversial. Being
so, we designed this study.
Aim: The present study was done in an attempt to investigate the morphological, histochemical
and ultrastructural changes produced in the cerebellum of neonatal mice as a result of exposure
to the nonionizing radiation of the mobile phone.
Material and Methods: Eleven neonatal mice were used in this study. Five of them were
exposed (as experimental group) to mobile phone microwaves (900- 1800 MHz, SAR: 0.92
w/kg) during their late prenatal and early postnatal life (1 hour/day for 30 consecutive days).
While the other six served as control animals. Comparable parts of cerebella were removed
from all animals and processed for the examination by the light and the transmission electron
Results: The whole body exposure of the neonatal mice to this type of nonionizing radiation
resulted in several morphological, histochemical and ultrastructural changes. These changes
included a statistically significant decrease in the mean cell distribution, DNA content and total
protein content of Purkinje cells and other cerebellar elements of exposed animals. On the other
hand an increase in the Purkinje cell volume was recorded. In addition, the ultrastructural
observations were corrugated plasma and nuclear membranes, ruptured mitochondria,
destruction of Golgi apparatus , dilatation and disintegration of RER, scarcity of ribosomes and
Nissl bodies in Purkinje cells. Damage in the cell membranes, chromatin clumping and increase
in electron density of the cells of granular layer also observed. In the molecular layer;
degeneration of axons and dendrites, increased electron density and damage of neurons
Conclusion: The whole-body exposure of neonatal mice to the nonionizing radiation produced
many pathological lesions in their cerebella at the cellular and subcellular levels.


Radiofrequency fields of cellular phones
experimental findings have often been
may affect biological systems by increasing
contradictory due to variable exposure
free radicals, which appear mainly to
conditions in diverse animal species and
enhance lipid peroxidation and by changing
the antioxidase activities of the subject
blood leading to oxidative stress. Although
metabolically active organ. The cerebellum
the use of mobile telephones is common
has the propensity to be affected by
and increasing and requires these devices to
environmental stress. It was proved that the
be held close to the head, exposure effects
cerebellum is the most sensitive part of the
on the brain remain controversial and
brain because it recorded the highest value
prevent regulatory agencies giving an
of specific absorption rate "SAR" (Chou et
unqualified assurance of public safty
al., 1999). Also, Purkinje cells can be
(Repacholi, 1998). Furthermore,
easily identified for quantitative and

Full Paper (vol.36 paper# 14)