Renal and Ocular Complications and It's Relationship to Glycemic Control, CD95 and Soluble Fas (s Fas) in Type 1 Diabetes Mell The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 23: 189 ­ 199 June 2006
I.S.S.N: 12084
2002 ­

Renal and Ocular Complications and It's Relationship to Glycemic Control,
CD95 and Soluble Fas (s Fas) in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

Hamdia Ezzat Ahmed*, Mahmoud Hashish*,
Zeinab Osheiba** Samia Taher*** and Karima youssef***
*Clinical Pathology, ** Pediatric, *** Internal Medicine,
Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University


Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) is an autoimmune disease that results from the destruction
of insulin-secreting pancreatic islet beta cells by autoreactive cells and their mediators.
The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of Fas receptors (CD95) on T and B
lymphocytes from patients with type 1 DM and to assess the role of soluble Fas (s-Fas) in Fas
mediated apoptosis of T and B lymphocytes, and to assess the role of glycemic control in renal
and ocular complications.
This study was carried out on three groups:
Group I: consist of 16 patients with type 1 DM. Their age ranged from (11-18) years old with
mean duration of illness 6 + 4 months.
Group II: consist of 16 patients with long standing type 1 DM, their age ranged from 10 ­ 19
years old, with mean duration of illness 30 + 10 months.
Group III: consist of 16 healthy persons their age ranged from 10.5 ­ 19.5 years old.
Results can be summarized as follows:
The incidence of positive microalbuminuria as well as incidence of retinopathy were
significantly higher in group II (long standing DM) than newly diagnosed case (group I).
Microalbuminuric patients had significantly higher HbA1C than others.
Newly diagnosed cases (group I) as well as (group II) long standing DM type 1 had
significantly higher percentage of T and B lymphocyte bearing Fas receptors (CD95) as
compared to control group. Mean plasma level of s-Fas showed a significant increase in both
DM groups as compared to control group.
There is no significant difference in the percentage of lymphocytes expressing CD95, and
plasma s-Fas levels when compared microalbuminuric to normoalbuminuric patients. There was
positive correlation between HbA1C and microalbuminuria in diabetic patients, there was
positive correlation between HBA1C and % of lymphocyte expressing the Fas receptors (CD95).
In both diabetic groups, positive correlation was found between HbA1C and s-Fas in DM type 1.
Also, positive correlation was found between % of cells expressing CD95 and s-Fas.
In conclusion, the study of the possible role of apoptosis of autoreactive lymphocytes and
its regulation, in the pathogenesis of type 1 DM may provide new therapeutic tools for the
prevention of the disease. Further analysis, is necessary to finally settle this point, to elucidate
the roles played by distinct immunological pathway in diabetes pathogenesis, this can lead to
more effective and targeted therapies for the disease. Poor glycemic control is an essential
initiating factor of defective apoptosis in type 1DM.


Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) is one
As a result of increasing prevalence of
of the common chronic metabolic disorders,
type 1 diabetes in the last years, it becomes
it is the results of complex interactions
essential to search for the methods for
between multiple genetic variants and
prediction of the disease. Assessment of
environmental factors (Paula et al., 2002).
risk for type 1 DM has become more

Full Paper (vol.23 paper# 1)

Hypolipidimic effect of some medicinal plants on diabetic rats The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 23: 200 ­ 211 June 2006
I.S.S.N: 12084
2002 ­
Hypolipidimic effect of some medicinal plants on diabetic rats

Eman G.E.Helal * and Mohamed M. A. Shahat **
* Department of zoology, Faculty of Science, AL-Azhar University (Girls)
** Department of zoology, Faculty of Science, AL-Azhar University (Assiut)


Our aim was to evaluate the hypolipidimic effect of aqueous extract of a famous mixture
used in Saudi Arabia folk medicine that consists of Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha,
Boswellia carterii Birdw, Ferule assa-foetida and Aloe vera and also the extract of each plant
alone on alloxan induced diabetic rats.
Material and Methods :-The present study was carried out on 80 adult male albino rats
(120 ± 20 g.b.wt. ), the rats were divided randomly into 8 groups, the first group served as
control group, the second group as alloxan induced diabetic rats, the third group was diabetic
rats treated with mixture of folk medicinal plant ( 0.01g /100 g b. wt. ) ,the fourth group:
diabetic rats treated with Nigella sativa ( 0.01g /100 g b. wt. ), the fifth group: diabetic rats
treated with Aloe vera ( 0.005g /100 g b. wt. ), the sixth group: diabetic rats treated with
Ferule assa-foetida ( 0.01 g /100 g b. wt.), the seventh: diabetic rats treated with Boswellia
carterii Birdw ( 1ml/100 g b. wt.) and the eighth group: diabetic rats treated with Commiphora
myrrha ( 0.01 g ml/100 g b. wt.)
Results :- Serum total lipid, serum total cholesterol, LDL­cholesterol, and triglyceride
recorded significant increases in diabetic, Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia
carterii birdw and Aloe vera treated group. While the mixture and Ferule assa-foetida treated
group, showed insignificant changes in serum total lipid, triglyceride, serum total cholesterol
and LDL­cholesterol. On other hand, the mixture treated group and Ferule assa-foetida treated
group showed significant decreased in the previous parameters. The serum HDL­cholesterol
was significantly reduced in diabetic group throughout the experimental periods, otherwise, all
treated group revealed insignificant changes till the end of experiment when compare with
undiabetic rats.
Conclusion: The aqueous extract of a mixture consists of Nigella sativa, Commiphora
myrrha, Boswellia carterii Birdw, Ferule assa-foetida and Aloe vera are useful for improvement
of the lipid profile of alloxan induced diabetic rats fram each plant alone.


Diabetes mellitus, a leading world-
called 'diabetic dyslipidaemia' and consists
wide metabolic disorder, is characterized by
of elevated serum total and VLDL (very
hyperglycemia associated with impairment
low-density lipoprotein) triglyceride, low
in insulin secretion and/or insulin action as
HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol
well as alteration in intermediary metab-
and essentially normal total and LDL
olism of carbohydrate, protein and lipids.
(lowdensity lipoprtein) cholesterol concent-
Several reports indicate that annual
rations. The distribution of LDL subfrac-
incidence rate of diabetes mellitus will
tions, however, is altered, with a predomi-
increase in future worldwide, especially in
nation of small dense LDL particles
the developing countries (King et al., 1998
(sometimes called the 'type B' pattern)
and Kameswara Rao et al., 2003).
which are strongly related to vascular
Lipid abnormalities occur most
commonly in diabetes in type 2 diabetic
Dysipidaemia is also present in patients
subjects, even in those who have reasonable
with impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetic
glycaemic control. The characteristic
dyslipidaemia is a component of the insulin
pattern of blood lipids in type 2 diabetes is
resistance syndrome (syndrome X), i.e.

Full Paper (vol.23 paper# 2)

Effect Of Photoperiod On The Development And Fecundity Of The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 23: 212 ­ 218 June 2006
I.S.S.N: 12084
2002 ­

Effect Of Photoperiod On The Development And Fecundity Of
Carpoglyphus lactis L. ( Acari: Carpoglyphidae )

Wafaa L. F. Ibrahim
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science (for girls), Al-Azhar University.


The effect of four different photoperiods ( darkness, 0 ; 8 ; 16 and continuous light, 24 hours
per day ) on the developmental stages and fecundity of Carpoglyphus lactis L. fed on wheat was
studied under laboratory conditions of 25±2ŗC and 65±5% RH.
Results and conclusion:
The obtained results revealed no clear effect of photoperiod on the incubation period. It was
2.9 and 3.4 for male ; 2.7 and 3.2 for female at darkness and continuous light respectively. The
duration of each immature instar as well as the combined immature stages increased with
increasing hours of light in both male and female. Different patterns were observed for
longevity data for male and female. Male longevity was the longest ( 9.3 days ) at continuous
light (24 h. ) whereas the greatest female longevity ( 15.4 days ) was at complete darkness. The
oviposition period as well as total average and mean daily deposited eggs decreased as the
photoperiod increased.
Key words: Photoperiod, Development, Fecundity, Carpoglyphus lactis L., Carpoglyphidae,


The mites associated with stored-products
temperature. They found that the movement
are considered of a great economic
of these mites is strongly directed towards
importance. They cause a great damage not
areas of high temperature but away from
only by consuming a large amount of stored
higher light intensity.
food but also by contaminating materials
The present work aimed to study the
with their excretions and dead bodies (Taha
effect of different photoperiods on the
et al., 2004). Stored-product mites can also
development and fecundity of the stored-
be a cause of occupational disease in staff
product mite, Carpoglyphus lactis L.
working in the grain and food-processing

Materials And Methods
Carpoglyphus lactis L. was found in dried

fruits, milk products, wine, caramel and
Carpoglyphus lactis mites were
flour (Hughes, 1976 and Hurbert et al.,
obtained from Plant Protection Research
2005). It also has been recorded in bee
Institute, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.
hives in central Europe and is considered as
Plastic cells of 2.5 cm. in diameter
an important contaminant of honey
and 2 cm. in depth with perforated covers
(Chmielewski, 1971).
and filled up with a plaster layer of paris
Pegler and Wall (2004) studied the
and charcoal (9:1) on its bottom to a depth
tactic responses of the astigmatid parasitic
of 0.5 cm. were used for rearing mites in all
mite, Psoroptes ovis, to light and
experiments. Drops of water were added

Full Paper (vol.23 paper# 3)

Effect Of Some Fungi Species On The Biology Of The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 23: 219 ­ 225 June 2006
I.S.S.N: 12084
2002 ­

Effect Of Some Fungi Species On The Biology Of
Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schr.)

Basma, M. Abou El-Nour.
Faculty of science Al-Azhar University (For Girls)


The effect of different fungi species, (Aspergillus Carcincus, Verticillium sp.,
Helminthosporium turicum, Diplodia sp. and Alternaria tenuis)
on the biology of Tyrophagus
was measured under the laboratory conditions 27±2°cwith 65±5%RH.
Results and conclusion:
All different stages affected by the used fungi. The shortest period of immature stages occurred
under feeding on fungi Aspergillus carcinicus by females and males. Feeding on Alternaria
by females and males prolonged the period of immature stages.It also prolonged the
female and male life span (36.3days and 31.7 days respectively) in comparison with the other
used fungi.The number of deposited eggs by the adult female also affected by feeding on
different fungi species. Concerning the adult longevity, it was significantly differed when mites
fed on the different tested fungi .Generally female longevity was longer than male when feeding
on any of the used fungi. The maximum longevity of Tyrophagus putrescentiae was observed
when rearing on Alternaria tenuis.

Key words: Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Fungi, Development, fecundity.


Several species of mites infest stored
and Muzic, 1977; Bennet and Anderson,
foods and other organic debris such as
1978 and Abd El-Hamid 1988. The present
grain, flour, cereals, dried fruits and
work aimed to study the effect of some
vegetables pet foods, cheese, dried milk,
fungi species on the development, and
ham and sugar, etc. Prolonged contact with
fecundity of T. putrescntiae.
mite infested foods may produce a mild

dermatitis known as "baker's" or "grocer's
Material And Methods
itch." (Road, 1991).

The acaroid's mites tend to attack
To investigate the effect of fungi (five
stored food products such as cheese, milk,
species) on the young stages development
biscuit, etc. Quintero and Acevedo (2001)
and fecundity of adult of T. putrescentiae,
and El dabi (2003).
a samples of male and female mites were
The biological activities of the stored
obtained from Plant Protection Research
product mites adversely affect the different
Institute, Dokki,Giza,Egypt.
foodstuffs, due the consumption of the
The stock cultures of fungi were
feedstuffs, and biological or mechanical
obtained from the National Research
transmission of various microorganismes
especially fungi, some of these fungi
Adult females were sexed and left to
contaminating foodstuffs may produce
deposit their eggs and the females were
various toxic metabolites which are usually
then removed.
known as Aflatoxicoses were recorded by
Hatching larvae were left to continue
some authors, Sommer et al 1976; Balzer
its development until adulthood. Five

Full Paper (vol.23 paper# 4)

Some Biochemical and Hematological parameters on some cases of dependence among Yemenies The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 23: 226 ­ 230 June 2006
I.S.S.N: 12084
2002 ­

Some Biochemical and Hematological parameters on some cases of
dependence among Yemenies.

Nabil, H.s. ElHamady; Thabit Nasher*
and Rafieddin, A. AlMadi**
Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology; Internal Medicine* departmens, Faculty of
Medicine and Organic Chemistry** department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sana'a University


Subjects and methods, Forty five men aging 18-45 years old were divided into three
groups. Control group individuals were not suffering from dependencies. Group I and Group II,
were suffering from alcohol and heroin dependenc respectively. Biochemical and hematological
studies were performed before starting this trials. Results, there was high significant increase in
the value of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) lactate
dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin and uric acid in all patients in
comprison to the control group. It was found that cholesterol increased in group I and decreased
in group II while blood urea decreased in group I and increased in group II. Calcium and
potssium decreased in both groups I and II. The increase of fasting blood sugar and creatinine in
group II was highly significant while it was non significant in group I. There was high
significant increase in eosinophils percentage and prothrombin time and decrease in total
leucocytic count: percentage of lymphocytes, hematocrite value and hemoglobin in all patients
in comparison to the controls.


Drug dependencies are world wide
incidence is approximately 1% (Kaplan &
problems assuming alarming proportions in
Sadock. 1991).
Yemen over the past few years among
The most improtant fact is, as with
scondary school students and university
any chronic progressive disease, the early
students. It was found that the great
the diagnosis of chemical dependence, is
incidence of drug dependence was among
needed for a better outcome, (Milhorn,
failed and law standard students (Milhorn,
This work was a trial to get some
Physicians have daily contact with
laboratory values that may help to diagnose
chemically dependent individuals but the
or arouse suspicion to drug dependence.

dependence, This should be considered as a
Subjects and methods
symptom of the disease ( Hassan, et al

All patients examined in this study
Heroin is one of the semisynthetic
were alcoholics and heroin abusers. A total
opioids that threats our society. It may be
number of 45 men with age range 18-45
injected, swallowed, snorted, placed under
years old were examined. They were
the tongue or smoked (Hassan, M.A. et al
classified into three groups each consisting
1994). The lifetime prevelence of alcohol
of 15 persons;
abuse or dependence is 13.3% and the one-

year incidence is 1.7%. The lifetime
Control group : normal subjects not
prevelance of non-alcohol drug abuse or
suffering from any dependence.
dependence is 5.9% and the one-year
Group I : alcoholics.


Full Paper (vol.23 paper# 5)

Protective Role Of Proanthocyanidin Against Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Toxicity In Irradiated Rats The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 23: 231 ­ 244 June 2006
I.S.S.N: 12084
2002 ­

Protective Role Of Proanthocyanidin Against Carbon Tetrachloride
Induced Toxicity In Irradiated Rats

Mona A. El-Gawish, Amira T. Ebrahim*, Fatma A. Eid*
National Center for Radiation Research and Technology-Atomic Energy
Authority. Zoology Department, Faculty of Science,
Al-Azhar University*.


The hepatic injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) as well as gamma-irradiation
has taken most attention. Prevention is one of the essential ways of controlling this toxicity and
the use of natural plant compounds as grape seed extract can be considered as one of the most
significant elements in this prevention. The present study is also designed to evaluate the
hepatoprotective effects of grape seed extract (100mg/kg B.wt daily) against the toxic effect of
CCl4 ( 0.3 ml/kg B.wt twice weekly for 8 weeks) and/ or fractionated doses of 2 Gy -radiation
day after day up to 10 Gy in male rats.
Results obtained could be summarized as follows: Combined treatments of CCl4 and -
radiation induced a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and decreased level
of reduced glutathione (GSH). It also increased serum enzymes aspartate transferase (AST),
alanine transferase (ALT), a lkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma - glutamyl transpeptidase
(-GT) activities and decreased Hb%, RBCs, WBCs and platelets count. Proanthocyanidin
administration improved the significant increase in MDA level and ameliorated serum enzymes
as well as improved the decreased level of GSH content of irradiated rats or those treated with
CCl4. It also could normalize the blood constituents Hb%, RBCs, WBCs and platelets count.
The data of the present study declared that proanthocyanidin is bioavailable, potent free radical
scavenger and exhibits antioxidant properties against CCl4 and gamma-irradiation induced
hepatic injury.


Virtually occupational exposures to
are subjected to attack by oxygen, and
toxic concentrations of carbon-tetrachloride
subsequent process,termed lipid peroxid-
vapours are possible during industrial use
ation, which produces damage to memb-
of the chemicals (NCI, 1985). It has been
ranes and enzymes (Poli et al., 1989).
reported that oral exposure produced
The beneficial properties of flavo-
marked central nervous system depression
noids, including proanthocyanidins, have
and remarkable liver injury (Piyachaturawt
been extensively researched (Murray and
et al., 1995).
Pizzorno, 1999). In addition to their antio-
Injury produced by CCl4 seems to be
xidant and free radical scavenging activity
mediated by reactive metabolite-trichloro-
(Faria et al., 2006), proanthocyanidins
methyl free radical (.CCl3) formed by
found in grape seed extract have been
hemolytic cleavage of trichloromethyl
reported to have antibacterial, anticarcino-
peroxy free radical (Cl3COO.) formed by
genic, antiviral, anti-allergic, anti-inflamm-
the reaction of CCl3 with O2 (Slater, 1982),
atory effects (Blazso et al., 1994) vaso-
which attach enoic fatty acids in the
dilatory actions (Bagchi et al., 1998),
membranes of endoplasmic reticulum,
antimutagenic agents, provide cardioprote-
leading to secondary free radicals, which
ction by maintaining vascular permeability

Full Paper (vol.23 paper# 6)

Mitochondrial Mutation In Egyptian Patients With The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 23: 245 ­ 256 June 2006
I.S.S.N: 12084


2002 1687

Mitochondrial Mutation In Egyptian Patients With
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Fawzi O,A*; Hassan Z,A*; Abdel Kawy S,I**; Al-Diwany O,I**; Adel
A,M**; Hassan A,A***.
Departments of Endocrinology* and Clinical pathology** Faculty of medicine for girls,
Otolaryngyology department*** Faculty of medicine (boys) ­Al Azhar university.


Mitochondrial gene mutation plays a role in the development of diabetes mellitus. An A to
G substitution at base pair 3243 in the mitochondrial tRNAleu(UUR) gene (mt3243) is
commonly associated with maternally inherited diabetes and deafness and other diseases. The
aim of this study is to detect A to G substitution at base pair 3243 in mitochondrial
RNAleu(UUR) in the plasma of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to evaluate insulin
sensitivity in all cases.
This study, included 41 patients (Group I, 31 cases with type 2 diabetes mellitus and
maternal history of diabetes mellitus-and Group II, 10 cases with type 2 diabetes mellitus,
bilateral SNHL, maternal history of diabetes mellitus with or without SNHL. Other10 healthy
control group was included.
Patients and controls were subjected to full medical history and clinical examination.
Serum measurements for liver and kidney function tests, fasting and postprandial blood glucose
as well as C-peptide levels, in addition to lipid profile were collected. Audiological evaluation
for all patients with SNHL was also done. Genetic investigation, for mDNA analysis, done by
polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), to determine
the mutation in the mitochondrial gene at position 3243.
Results of the study showed that glycemic indices (FPG, 2hPPG and HbA1c), liver
enzymes and blood urea were significantly higher among patient group compared to control
group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference for values of creatinine and uric acid
between cases and controls. Lipid profile was significantly higher among patient group
compared to controls (P<0.05), except for HDL-C which was higher in controls however, it did
not reach statistical significance. C-peptide values were not significantly different between
studied groups. Age at onset of diabetes was relatively earlier in group II than group I. mDNA
was present in all plasma samples of patients and controls. mDNA 3243 mutation was detected
in the plasma of three patients with diabetes and SNHL with a rate of 7.3% of all diabetic
patients and 30% of diabetic patients associated with deafness. The presence of mDNA
mutation allowed 294 bp product to be cleaved into 180 and 114 bp fragments and were seen as
two bands.
In CoclusioN: The A 3243 G mutation is present in Egyptian population and is considered
as a cause of maternally inherited diabetes and deafness at a rate of 7.3% of all diabetic subjects
and a rate of 30% of diabetics associated with deafness. mDNA mutation is present and
detectable in plasma.
Maternally inherited diabetes and deafness differs pathophysiologically from the more
common forms of type 2 diabetes in that, insulin resistance does not seem to be a major factor.


The role of mitochondrial DNA
interest. Many mtDNA abnormalities have
(mtDNA) abnormalities in the development
been described in association with diabetes,
of diabetes has attracted recent widespread
but the most commonly reported mutation

Full Paper (vol.23 paper# 7)

Evaluation Of The Anti tumor Effect Of Camellia Sinesis (CS) Extract The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 23: 257­ 267 June 2006
I.S.S.N: 12084
2002 ­
Evaluation Of The Anti tumor Effect Of Camellia Sinesis (CS) Extract.
Biochemical And Histological Studies

Hanafy N.

Radiation Biology Department, National Center for Radiation Research and
Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt.


The inhibitory action of Camellia sinensis (CS) extract against cancer formation has been
demonstrated in different animal models involving different organ sites in many laboratories.
The possible preventive activity of CS extract against cancer and its effect on liquid tumor
(ascite form) or solid form is not clear. Materials and methods:To evaluateCS extract effect
on female mice inoculated with Eherlich carcinoma either intraperitoneally (ascite form) or
subcutaneously back in the neck region (solid form). Camellia sinensist (CS) extract
administrated daily for 2 weeks before tumor inoculation and then till the end of the
experiment. Female mice bearing Eherlich ascite carcinoma (ascite form) sacrificed on 6th and
12th day after tumor inoculation and the other inoculated with the solid form sacrificed after 2
and 4 weeks of the tumor inoculation. Histopathological examination of Eherlich tumor, liver
and kidney tissues was carried out and many of biochemical parameters ( total protein, albumin,
glucose, GPT, GOT, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, creatinine and urea) were analyzed.
Results:The results reveled that tumor inoculation and the progressive formation of the
Eherlich tumor leads to alterations in the structure of liver and kidney tissues as response to the
tumor spread. Biochemical analysis represents decrease in total protein and albumin and
increase in the other investigated parameters. CS extract administrations showed destructive
effect on tumor tissue and significantly decreased the sever damage in tissue structures due to
tumor spread. Amelioration in the different biochemical analysis was also recorded.
Conclusion: CS extract have a curing effect on tumor ( solid or ascite forms) ,progression
and spread and have an ameliorating effect on different serum activity levels.


Cancer continues to represent the
medicine. leaves of Camellia sinensis is a
largest cause of mortality in the world and
popular beverage in East Asia, and also
claims over 6 million lives every year
used as a herbal remedy in Europe and
(Abdullaey,2000). An extremely promising
North America. Camellia sinensis is consid-
strategy for cancer prevention today is
ered to be anti-inflammatory, antioxidative,
chemoprevention, which is defined as the
use of synthetic or natural agents (alone or
(Benelli et al., 2002 and Weisburger and
incombination) to block the development of
Chung 2002 ) and can prevent cardiac
cancer in humans. Plants, vegetables and
disorders. leaves of Camellia sinensis is the
herbs used in the folk and traditional
nonoxidized, non fermented product and
medicine have been accepted currently as
contains several polyphenolic components,
one of the main source of cancer
such as epicatechin, epicatechin gallate,
chemoprevention drug discovery and
development (Abdullaev,2001).
gallate (EGCG).
There is a growing interest in the
From this viewpoint the present study
pharmacological evaluation of various
was carried out to evaluate the anti tumor
plants used in Indian traditional system of
effect of hot water extract of Camellia

Full Paper (vol.23 paper# 8)

Effect Of Colchicine On The Histology Of Spleen And Testis Of Albino Rats The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 23:268­ 276 June 2006
I.S.S.N: 12084
2002 ­
Effect Of Colchicine On The Histology Of Spleen And Testis Of Albino Rats

Nabila A. R. Abdel Motaal
Radiation Biology Department, National Centre for Radiation Research
and Technology, Cairo, Egypt.


The aim of this work is to study the effect of colchicine administration on the histology of
spleen and testis of albino rat.
Colchicine was given in a daily dose of 3mg/kg body weight for five days. Animals were
sacrificed at 1, 4 and 7 days following treatment. Histopathological studies of the spleen and
testis were undertaken.
Histological examination of spleen showed that colchicine caused histopathological
changes in spleen manifested by massive haemorrhage, highly expanded red pulps accompanied
by reduced white pulps with multi small degenerated areas, disturbed architecture, degenerated
areas wer occupied by the hemorrhagic areas, prominent haemosiderin deposition, increased
number of megakaryocytes in red pulp and subcapsular edema. These histopathological changes
depend on the duration of colchicine intake.
Histological examination of the testis one, four and seven days post treatment with
colchicine showed dilatation and congestion of interstitial blood vessels, moderate degeneration
of spermatogoneal cells, debris of spermatozoa could be detected in the lumen of the
seminiferous tubules. The testis also suffered from interstitial edema with signs of fatty
degeneration and degeneration of spermatogoneal cells lining some seminferous tubules.
Complete destruction with hypocellularity in the spermatogenic layers in some seminiferous
tubules and others contained only the debris of germ cells and disturbed nuclei of
spermatogoneal cells with appearance of giant cells with highly reduced number of Leydig cells
which contained pyknotic nuclei were also noticed in some examined sections.
These results indicate that colchicine is considered as a toxic drug to the spleen and testis
at double therapeutic doses as indicated by the histological changes.


Colchicine is a naturally occurring
depolymerization of microtubules (Joshi,
alkaloid with weak anti-inflammatory
1998). Microtubules are involved in diverse
activity derived from the autumn crocus
functions, including cell movement, vesicle
Colchicum automnale and the glory lily
transport, and chromosome segregation
Gloriosa superba. It has been used
during mitosis. It has been shown that
extensively in the treatment of gout for
colchicine can be either cytotoxic or
many centuries and also been recommended
protective against cytotoxicity. Colchicine
has been reported to protect against a
Mediterranean fever (Zemer et al., 1974)
variety of hepatotoxic insults. It was
and in the treatment of primary biliary
reported to improve survival in a clinical
cirrhosis (Kaplan et al., 1986), amyloidosis
trial for alcoholic cirrhosis (Kershenobich
(Cohen et al., 1987), and condyloma
et al., 1988).
acuminate (Naidus et al., 1977).
Colchicine is rapidly absorbed from
Colchicine is an anti-mitotic agent
the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion. It
and has an effective role for acute gouty
undergoes significant first pass hepatic
arthritis. Colchicine interferes with the
metabolism, which primarily involves
formation of microtubules by binding to
deacetylation. Subsequent to this, the
microtubular protein (tubulin) and causing

Full Paper (vol.23 paper# 9)

Histological Study Of Liver And Intestine Of Rats Treated With Colchicine The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 23: 277­ 286 June 2006
I.S.S.N: 12084
2002 ­

Histological Study Of Liver And Intestine Of Rats Treated With Colchicine

Azza Abd El Maguid.
Health Radiation Research Department, National Centre for Radiation
Research and Technology, Cairo, Egypt.


The aim of the present work is to detect the effect of colchicine administration on the
histology of the liver and intestine in albino rats.
Most drugs have side effects which represent a great problem for human. Some of these
side effects may be serious. An example of these drugs is colchicine. Its only approved use is to
treat gout, though it is also occasionally used in veterinary medicine to treat cancers in some
animals. It is also used as an antimitotic agent in cancer research involving cell cultures.
Colchicine was given i.p with a dose of 3mg/kg body weight daily for a period of 5 days.
Histological examinations were carried out at one, four and seven days post treatment.
Histological examination of liver one, four and seven days post treatment with colchicine
showed sporadic necrosis, loss of hepatic architecture, pyknosis and vacuolations of some
hepatocytes, corrugated hepatic portal vein surrounded by large fibrotic area, edema of portal
tract with new bile ductules formation, dilatation and congestion of hepatic sinusoids,
multihaemorrhagic areas, hypertrophied hepatocytes with deeply stained shrunken nuclei and
mononuclear cells infiltration replacing focal areas of hepatic necrosis.
Histological examination of intestine showed no changes one day post treatment with
colchicine. At four and seven days post treatment, the intestine revealed hyperplasia and
hyperactivation of mucous secreting cells and intestinal glands and mononuclear cells
infiltration and edema in lamina propria with multihemorrhagic areas.
In conclusion, the present study has shown that colchicine has a toxic effect and some
histopathological changes have been detected, so care should be taken when colchicine is
prescribed in gout treatment.


The autumn Crocus has been known
would use its spindle fibers to line up its
since the times of ancient Greece. In the
chromosomes, make a copy of them, and
fifth century, herbalists discovered it and it
divide into new cells with each daughter
could be used to treat rheumatism, arthritis
cell having a single set of chromosomes.
and gout. The useful active ingredient in the
Colchicine blocks formation of spindle
plant is called colchicine. It is one of the
fibers and so the cell can't move its
oldest drugs which were used in the
chromosomes around. The cell may end up
treatment of gout and is still useful in the
copying some or all of the chromosomes
treatment of several other diseases
anyway, but can't parcel them out into new
(Bertram, 1992 and Eric et al., 1992) and
cells, and so it never divides. It has been
was used by physicians for the last 150
proposed as a novel drug for therapy of
pulmonary fibrosis (Entzian et al., 1997).
Colchicine is a water-soluble alkaloid
Borisy and Taylor (1967) reported that
and it is found in the autumn crocus. It has
colchicine is one of the micro tubule-
the ability to block or suppress cell division
disruptive agents and it binds with tubulin,
by inhibiting mitosis. Specifically, it
inhibits the development of spindles as the
Colchicine was also reported by Ostermann
nuclei are dividing. Normally, the cell
et al. (1993) and Perico et al. (1996) to

Full Paper (vol.23 paper# 10)

Molecular Characterization Of Hair Cuticle And Its Extracted Proteins In Seven Mammalian Species The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 23: 287­308 June 2006
I.S.S.N: 12084

2002 ­

Molecular Characterization Of Hair Cuticle And Its Extracted Proteins In
Seven Mammalian Species

S. K. Areida, M. F. Ismail, E. K. Abdel Hady, and A. O. Osman
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

Hair is an of the epidermis in mammals and consists of two large groups of human hair
proteins. One is hard -keratins and the other is matrix proteins. The present investigation aimed
to compare the ultrastructural of the hair scale using the scanning electron microscope, and the
proteins and amino acids content of the keratin in seven mammalian species.
The values of the hair thickness, x/y feret and hair pattern of the species in the present
study confirm the presence of species-specific characteristics and ultra structural variation. The
situation in man differs from the wild mammals due to damage of hair cuticle caused by
mechanical abuse, exposure to ultraviolet radiation and chemical over processing. The
maximum amount of extracted proteins from hair keratin was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The
electrophoretic patterns showed an overall degree of similarity. However, differences exist
between species in the intensity of stain. Quantitatively, the electrophoretic patterns scanned and
analyzed using gel protein analyzer. The results showed no difference between the molecular
mass of some species, but different in molecular mass distribution.
Amino acid composition of keratin of mammalian hair species of the present study
showed some variation, especially for methionine, isoleucine, lysine and arginine. The other
amino acids studied are significantly present in most hair. One of the later amino acid is
cysteine. Cysteine is a very important due to the presence of disulfate cross-links.

The molecular structure and chemistry
tyrosine (HGT) proteins, an non-high
of hair was to be considered in seeking to
sulfur/high glycine tyrosine proteins). 3,4,5)
understand the damaging effects of topic-
The protein content in a keratinized
ally applied preparations (i.e., perming,
structure, including animal hair, nail, horn
and feather, is approximately 80% of the
environmental influences (i.e., sunlight and
total mass.6,7) Two large groups of human
oxidants), and mechanical factors (i.e.,
hair proteins are known. One is hard -
combing, brushing, and drying). The cuticle
keratins forming microfibrous intermediate
has been recognized as a tough and imper-
filaments and the other is matrix proteins
vious layer providing protection for the hair
forming a nonfilamentous matrix as
shaft emerging from the follicle. 1,2)
intermediate filaments-associated proteins.
Keratinized tissues such as hair have been
The hard a-keratins are further resolved into
recognized as useful sources for the studies
two subfamilies, consisting of at least 4--9
on structural proteins.
distinct type I acidic (40--50 kDa) and 4--
Hair shaft consists of an outer cuticle
6 type II neutral/basic (55--65 kDa)
surrounding a central cortex which may
members.8) Matrix proteins are classified
contain a central medulla. The keratin fiber
into high-sulfur proteins (10--20 kDa) and
is primarily made up to insoluble keratin
high-tyrosine proteins (6--9kDa). N-
intermediate filament (IF) proteins. The
terminal acetylations have been reported for
inters pace between the keratin (Ifs) is filled
a post-translational modification of animal
with a matrix of keratin associated proteins
hair a-keratins and the related proteins.9,10)
(e.g. high sulfur proteins, high glycine

Full Paper (vol.23 paper# 11)

Construction, transfection and production of recombinant vigilin in mammalian expression system The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 23: 309­ 318 June 2006
I.S.S.N: 12084

2002 ­

Construction, transfection and production of recombinant vigilin in
mammalian expression system

Sayed Kamel Areida
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.


Vigilin is an abundant, highly conserved, ubiquitous protein containing 15 related, but
non-identical, K-homolous nucleic acid binding domains. The construction, transfection and
production of recombinant vigilin in mammalian expression system were investigated. The
whole length of vigilin was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ligated to pCEP-
PU vector. The recombinant construct pCEP-PU with vigilin was produced and transfected into
Human embryonic kidney cells in a specific culture medium. The secreted recombinant vigilin
was purified from the serum-free medium to homogeneity by affinity chromatography. The
conditioned and purified media were tested for the presence of vigilin by sodium dodecyl
sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting with specific
antibody. An immunoreactive band with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 140 kDa
was detected. Immunofluorescence staining of transfected cells with vigilin demonstrated that
recombinant vigilin molecules are localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm. In summary, the
purified recombinant vigilin will facilitate future studies that address the structure and function
of vigilin.
Keywords: SDS-PAGE / vigilin / Immunoblott / Immunofluorescence/ affinity chromatography


Ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs)
previously. The occurrence of an additional
are substrates for RNA export from the
fifteenth N-terminal KH domain is
nucleus to the cytoplasm (Siomi et al, 1994;
supported by the observation that the
kim et al, 1995) through nuclear pore
exon/intron boundaries also define the
complexes, an energy-dependent process
structure of this domain, as observed for the
which is mediated by specific saturable
factors (Nandabalan and Roeder, 1995).
Fridovich-Keil, 2000). Since the KH-
These findings have stimulated efforts to
identify RNA-binding proteins involved in
degenerate, and to avoid confusion with the
RNA export. A number of RNA-binding
numbering of the 14 KH domains of vigilin
motifs has been described in recent years,
described previously, the vigilin tRNA
such as the RNP motif, the arginine-rich
complex has only been characterized from a
motif, the RGG box and the heterogenous
cytosolic extract (Kruse et al, 1998).
nuclear ribonucleoprotein K-homologous
Although vigilin is an ubiquitous
(KH) domain (Kiledjian et al, 1995). The
protein, it should be emphasized that
multi-KH-protein vigilin has a nuclear
highest expression is observed in those cells
localization sequence, and has been
which are known to produce high quantities
localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm of a
of protein, such as liver parenchymal cells
wide variety of cells (Kuegler et al, 1996).
or pancreatic secretory cells (Plenz et
Analysis of the vigilin KH-domain
al,1993; Arning et al, 1996). From the
structure has suggested that the protein
increase of vigilin production in cells and
consists of 15 KH domains (Kruse et al,
1996), rather than the 14 domains described
activity, and owing to the fact that

Full Paper (vol.23 paper# 12)

Potency of Allium sativum and Allium cepa Oils against Schistosoma The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 23: 319- 332 June 2006
I.S.S.N: 12084
2002 ­
Potency of Allium sativum and Allium cepa Oils against Schistosoma
mansoni Infection in Mice

Nadia S. Metwally
Medicinal Chemistry Department, National Research Center,
Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.


Introduction: It has been reported that garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa)
are used all over the world in different diseases, such as infections, injuries, gastrointestinal
dysfunctions and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, our aim in this work was to study the
ability of garlic and onion oils to offset the infectivity as well as the metabolic disturbances
induced by Schistosoma mansoni parasitism.
Methods: The two current drugs were given in a dosage of 5ml / kg body weight/ day.
Three aspects of drug action were investigated, the effect on S. mansoni infection, the effect on
liver functions, and on liver metabolism. The parasitological investigation included worm
burden and ova count.
Results: Serum biochemical analysis of infected mice revealed a significant increase in
the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) , ­
glutamyltransferase (GGT) , alkaline phosphatase ( ALP), acid phosphatase (AP), while a
decrease in glucose, total lipids total cholesterol, high - and low- density lipoproteins cholesterol
(HDL and LDL), triglycerides, total proteins and albumin was observed. Liver tissue analysis of
infected animals showed a marked increase in L- hydroxyproline (HP) concentration and
xanthine oxidase (XO) activity accompanied with a reduction in total adenosinetriphosphatase
(ATPase) and phosphofructokinase (PFK) enzymatic activities. Treatment with either garlic or
onion oils greatly normalized liver function enzymes and variably improved the other
parameters with a noticeable reduction in worm burden and ova count.
Conclusions: It could be concluded that garlic or onion may play a role against the
metabolic disturbances caused by S. mansoni infection, owing to an effect which may be
induced by improving the immunological host system and their antioxidant activities.
Key words: A. sativum ­ A. cepa ­ S. mansoni ­ Worm burden ­ Ova count ­ Serum
analysis ­ liver analysis.


Schistosoma mansoni
, a helminthic
in the liver (Casini et al., 1997). In the
parasite, that causes human bilharziasis,
chronic phase of infection, liver fibrosis and
settles in the mesenteric veins of the gut, its
its confluences can eventually lead to death.
eggs migrate to the liver where they induce
Current control of the disease by
a delayed hypersensitivity response. In
chemotherapeutic agents is impractical
schistosomiasis, morbidity and mortality
because of the common occurrence of re ­
are due to a unique form of liver fibrosis
infection after treatment due to relative
followed by portal hypertension as the main
resistance of the larval stages of S.mansoni
complication. The egg cuticle, composed of
to schistosomicide drugs (Silva et al.,
cross ­ linked proteins, encloses a larva that
2003). Praziquantel, the currently used
releases enzymes and antigens through
drug for chemotherapeutic control, was
multiple pores. The host reaction presu-
reported to induce hemorrhage in the lung
mably involves reactive oxygen species
tissue of the host (Flisser &Mclaren, 1989)
(ROS) (Caulfield et al., 1985). The produc-
as well as abdominal pain and diarrhea
tion of ROS initiates a fibrogenesis cascade
(Kabatereine et al., 2003). So for combating

Full Paper (vol.23 paper# 13)

Physiological and Histological Studies on Glucan as Modulator of Hazardous Effects in Rats Treated with Cyclophosphamide and E The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 23: 333 - 352 June 2006
I.S.S.N: 12084
2002 ­
Physiological and Histological Studies on Glucan as Modulator of Hazardous
Effects in Rats Treated with Cyclophosphamide and Exposed to ­Radiation

Manar N. Hafez, Mona A. El-Gawish, Fatma A. Mohamed * ,
Fatma M. Hussien**
National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Al-Azhar University*
and Sanaa University**


Aim of the work:
-glucan which is known as biological response modifiers and
immunostimulator was investigated in this study to minimize the toxicity of chemo-and
radiotherapy induced by cyclophosphamide (CYP) and radiation exposure in rats. Materials
and methods:
-glucan was orally administered in a dose of 10 mg/kg b.wt. daily against the
hazardous impacts of -irradiation (1 Gy daily up to 10 Gy) and/or CYP (50 mg/kg b.wt. every
other day for 2 weeks). Determination of some biochemical analysis was carried out including
calcium, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase. Hematological analysis
was performed on leucocytes and platelets counts. Additionally, histological study was also
done on both lung and testis tissues. The experimental rats being sacrificed 1, 7 and 21 days
post-treatment. Results: Treatment with CYP induced significant decrease in WBCs, platelets
counts and alkaline phosphatase activity and significant increase of creatine kinase and LDH
activities accompanied by a significant increase in Ca level only at the end of experimental
period. Similar results were recorded with irradiated group accompanied with a non significant
change in Ca level allover the experimental periods. Combined treatment with both -radiation
and CYP intensified the effect of each other on most of the investigated parameters.
Microscopic examination of the lung revealed that both -irradiation and CYP showed
disturbed structure of bronchioles, thickened alveolar walls together with scattered
haemorrhagic areas. Signs of pneumonia and compensatory emphysema were also seen.
Meanwhile, in testis, irregular seminiferous tubules with reduction in their sizes were observed.
Besides, the intertubular spaces were fibrotic and devoid of Leyding cells. Bizarre-shaped
spermatogenic cells were also prominent. In combined treatment, these lesions became much
more progressed. However, glucan administration prior to treatment with CYP or -radiation led
to an improvement in most of biochemical, hematological and histological parameters under
Conclusion: -glucan has a good protective role against the toxic effects associated with
chemo-and radiotherapy.


Chemotherapy of cancer has opened
One of the approaches to deal with this
new possibilities and chances for improving
problem is to search for suitable naturally
the quality and life span. Despite this
occurring agents that are able to stimulate
successful trend, treatment with some of the
defense mechanisms of the organisms.
most effective anticancer drugs caused
Among these agents are glucans, which
many of toxic symptoms to normal cells.
belongs to the class of drugs, known as
Combination of CYP and fractionated body
biological response modifiers.
irradiation was the most conditioning
-1,3 D glucan, which is formed of a
regimen in cancer therapy. These regimens
long-chained polysaccharide, is an effective
are responsible for late and early
antioxidant and free radical scavenger
complications and may provide higher
(Bobeck and Calbavy, 2001) and effective
toxicity rate (Goldberg and Lidsky, 1985).
in preventing coronary heart disease by

Full Paper (vol.23 paper# 14)

Table (1): Effect of Tramadol (40 mg/kg/day) Administration on The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 23: 353 - 362 June 2006
I.S.S.N: 12084
2002 ­

Biochemical Toxicity Induced By Tramadol Administration
In Male Rats

Inass I. El-Gaafarawi
The National Center for Social and Criminological Research,
Zamalek P.O., P.C.11561, Cairo, Egypt.


Introduction: Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic used for treatment of moderate to
severe pain. There has been some controversy regarding the dependence lability of long- term
use of this medication. The present work was conducted to assess the biochemical toxicity
profiles of tramadol during therapeutic use. Liver and kidney functions, sex hormones activity
and some metabolic parameters were studied in male rats.
Methods: Rats were divided into three groups. Group one received vehicle (saline), group
two and three received oral doses of tramadol equal to 40 mg and 80 mg / kg body weight / day
respectively for a month followed by 10 days recovery period. Biochemical measurements were
carried out every 10 days.
Results: There was significant increase in the levels of serum aminotransferases
(ALT,AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea nitrogen (BUN),creatinine and lipid peroxide
( MDA) in both tramadol groups. In contrast, serum glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides
were significantly reduced. Tramadol significantly reduced serum luteinizing hormone (LH),
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone and cortisol, but elevated prolactin (PRL) and
estradiol (E2) in male rats specially at 20 and 30 days of treatment. After 10 days recovery, 80
mg tramadol group remained significantly different compared to control one.
Conclusion:The present finding pointed out the risk of increased lipid peroxidatin, hepatic
and renal damage and sexual dysfunction. Tramadol toxic effects should be kept in mind during
long term therapy specially in large doses.


Tramadol (Tramal TM) is a synthetic,
levels are reached in about 2 hours after an
centrally acting analgesic used parent-erally
oral dose. The drug is converted in the liver
and orally for the treatment of moderate to
to at least one active metabolite (O-
severe pain. The mechanism of tramadol
desmethyl-tramadol: ML), which itself is 2
analgesic action is complex. Most reports
to 4 times more potent than tramadol (Wu
suggest that the analgesic activity and other
et al., 2001; Tao et al., 2002; Janssen-
clinical effects of tramadol are a result of
Ortho Inc., 2005). Its opioid activity is
greater than the parent compound and could
Tramadol binds to the -opioid receptor,
contribute to this component (Lewis and
Han, 1997; Grond and Sablotzki, 2004).
morphine. It also inhibits the neuronal
The parent drug and metabolites are mainly
reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin as
excreted via kidneys (Matthiessen et al.,
do the antidepressant drugs such as
1998; Janssen- Ortho Inc., 2005).
amitriptyline and desimpramine (Raffa et
Tramadol has a dose- dependent
al., 1992; Raffa, 1996; Dayer et al.,1997;
analgesic efficacy that lies between that of
Grond and Sablotzki, 2004; Gillman, 2005).
codeine and morphine, with a parenteral
Tramadol has high oral bioavai-
potency comparable to that of pethidine, i.e.
lability in the range of 70- 80%. Peak blood
about 10- 20 % of the standard morphine

Full Paper (vol.23 paper# 15)

Role of E-Selenium in the Enhancement of Immune Response of NIH mice to Vero Cell Rabies Vaccine The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 23: 363 - 370 June 2006
I.S.S.N: 12084


2002 1687
Antioxidants Enhancement to the Immune Response of NIH Mice to Vero
Cell Grown Rabies Virus Vaccine

Aly Fahmy Mohamed

Virology Department, Egyptian Organization for Biological Products and Vaccines (VACSERA
Holding Company), 51 Wezaret El-Zeraa St., Agouza, Giza, Egypt.

Introduction: Rabies cell culture vaccine (Vero-Rab) showed to be more immunogenic
and a higher and faster release of antibody titer could be detected than in case of using Fermi
type vaccine, DEV and CECV. Result: The immune response of NIH mice immunized
intramuscularly using both vE - Se adjuvated and non adjuvated Vero cell rabies virus vaccine
(Vero-Rab) showed an elevation of antibody level of vaccinated mice groups more than the
limits decided by WHO for a potent rabies virus vaccine. Also, two different immunization
regimens were achieved, 5 single doses and 3 double doses of vE-selenium adjuvated and non
adjuvated Vero cell rabies virus vaccine. The antibodies developed against rabies virus vaccine
could be detected 14 days post immunization using ELISA and IFA. The antibody level
developed in sera of mice immunized, with either adjuvated and non adjuvanted Vero-Rab.,
using different immunization regimens, could protect mice against the challenge with 100
MICLD50 of the challenge virus standard (CVS) after the end of the experiment, (6 months of
the prim-vaccination).Conclusion: vE-Se as immune potentiator can enhance the immune
response and single dose immunization regimen without vE-Se as immune stimulant was
preferred than double dose regimen.

Key words: Rabies vaccine, Immunization, Vitamin E ­ Selenium, ELISA, Immunofluorscent.


Rabies is probably one of the oldest
brain tissue vaccines. The antibody levels
recorded infectious diseases of mankind
were higher and appeared earlier after
The first rabies virus vaccine developed by
immunization with cell culture vaccine than
Louis Pasteur surely had been used to
those induced post DEV (Wiktor1969; El-
eliminate or, at least, reduce rabies
karamany.1987). Selenium is an essential
incidence. However, this goal has not been
trace element; is toxic at very high levels.
achieved yet because rabies virus is
Selenium is existing as an essential
maintained in many animal reservoirs,
component of glutathione peroxidase; a
including both domestic and wild animals
seleno-enzyme that catalyze the reduction
(Plotkin,1996). Many attempts were made
to produce cheap and safe rabies vaccine in
corresponding alcohols or the conversion of
different tissues. The use of human origin
H2O2 to water. Consequently, selenium
cell line substrate was achieved (Hayflick
with glutathione peroxidase indirectly
and Moorhead,1969; Meslin and Kaplan,
provides a line of defense against oxygen
1996). Other cell culture vaccine candidates
free radicals before they propagate a chain
are inactivated, concentrated and purified
reaction, damaging cell membranes and
vaccines; these vaccines could evoke much
components. Also, selenium and vitamin E
better immune response in animals and
(vE) act synergistically in the defense
humans than that induced by duck embryo
vaccine (DEV) and suckling or adult mice
metabolites (ROM) and they protect the

Full Paper (vol.23 paper# 16)

Beneficial Effect of Combined Administration of Vitamin C and Vitamin E in Amelioration of Chronic Lead Hepatotoxicity The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 23: 371 - 384 June 2006
I.S.S.N: 12084

2002 ­

Beneficial Effect of Combined Administration of Vitamin C and Vitamin E
in Amelioration of Chronic Lead Hepatotoxicity

Samir A.E. Bashandy
Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud univrsity Saudi Arabia


Introduction: Oxidative stress with subsequent lipid peroxidation has been postulated as
one mechanism for lead toxicity. The protective action of vitamins C and E against lead affects
lipid hydroperoxide level and liver functions in male rats has been studied.
Results: Administration of lead acetate (2%) in dirinking water for 3 months elevates
plasma lipid hydroperoxide level, activities of aspartate aminotronsferase (AST), alanine
aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cholesterol, triglycerides and low
density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. On the other hand, reduced plasma glutathione (GSH), protein
and high density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations lowered significantly in lead (Pb) treated
group. However, oral administration of vitamin C (Vit C) or vitamin E (Vit E) at dose level of
100 mg/kg body weight reduced the alterations in the previous parameters. On the other hand,
co-administration of both vitamins (Vit C+ Vit E) to lead-treated rats led to the most significant
decline in lipid hydroperoxide level, restoration of GSH level and exhibited more protection as
compared with Vit C or Vit E separately.
Conclusion: There is synergistic antioxidative effect between Vit C and Vit E that
protects the liver from lead induced lipid peroxidation, suggesting that the antioxidant treatment
may best be done using a balanced cocktail. .


Lead (Pb) is environmental and indiustrial
homeostasis within the body. Vitamin C
pollutant that has undesired effects,
(Vit C) and vitamin E (Vit E) are low
including growth retardation (Shukla et al.,
molecular mass antioxidants that scavenge
1991) immunological (Ercal et al., 2000),
or quench free radicals (Janisch et al.,
hepatic (Sivaprasad et al., 2004) and
2005). Reactive oxygen species (ROS)
reproductive disfunctions (Winder, 1993).
related lead toxicity in the rat sperm was
Pb caused lymphocyte infiltration and
prevented by Vit C or Vit E (Hsu et al.,
cirrhosis of liver cells (Sipos et al., 2003).
1998). These findings suggest potential role
Hepatic disorders were noticed in rats as
of antioxidants to ameliorate lead toxicity.
manifested by increase of liver enzymes
Moreover, the Co-treatment of Pb-injected
mice with both vitamin C and E inhibited
Activation of free radical processes and
cytotoxic effects of lead on the testes
impairment of the antioxidant defense
(Mishra and Acharya, 2004). Both Vit C
system are likely to be one of the basic
and Vit E alleviate oxidative stress
mechanisms responsible for hepatic damage
associated with a variety of pollutants. Vit
during prolonged lead intoxication (El-
C and Vit E reduced lipid peroxidation and
Sokkary et al., 2005). Treatment of rats
oxidative stress result from arsenic
with Pb increased reactive oxygen species
(Kannan and Flora, 2004), Ozone (Sienra-
(ROS) that may contribute to hypertension
Monge, 2004) and cadmium (Grosicki,
and tissue damage (Vaziri et al., 1999).
2004) toxicities. Combined treatment with
Vitamins are essential to maintain
vitamin C and vitamin E exhibited a good
protection against thioacetamide (Ming et

Full Paper (vol.23 paper# 17)

Protection the flavonoids, rutin and proto chatechuic acid, against mitotic crossing over, gene conversion and reverse mutatio The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 23: 385 ­ 391 June 2006
I.S.S.N: 12084
2002 ­ 1687

Protection the flavonoids, rutin and proto chatechuic acid, against mitotic
crossing over, gene conversion and reverse mutation induced by
(chlorpyritos) in Saccharomyces cerevisia D7.

Ekram,S. Ahmed
Department of Cell Biology, National Research Center Cairo ­ Egypt.


Protection by the flavonoids , rutin and protochatechuic acid , against
insecticide chlorpyrifos induced mitotic crossing over , gene conversion and reverse mutation
were investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisia D7 .
Results: The results indicate that Rutin and Protochatechuic acid have some
antimutagenic potential against mutagenicity of chloropyrifos.
There for, the flavonoids contained in Senna seem to be important as antimutagenic and


In many genetic investigation the
study the antimutagenicity of certain
organophosphorus insecticides has been
single chemical and complex chemical
reported as a potent genotoxic agents
mixtures. We selected the diploid strain
(Abdallah et al. (1973); Nafei et al.
D7 of Saccharomyces crevisiae which was
(1984); Salam et al. (1984); Mansour et al.
constructed by Zimmermann, (1975)
(1988) and Rahaman et al. (2002) . The
Specifically to detect, mitotic gene
induction of mitotic crossing over in
diploid yeast Saccharomyces cereviciae is
crossing over. Many, naturally occurring
strongly correlated with the mutagenic
compounds can have important effects on
effects. These tests very sensitivily react
the consequences of exposure to mutagens
with compounds which induce base-pair
and carcinogense.Food ingredients like
substitution as well as fram-shift
flavonoids have been claimed to have
mutations. This system has revealed the
antimutagenic or anticarcinigeneic poten-
genetic activity of large number of
tial (Steinmetz and Potter, 1991).
carcinogens, pesticides, radiation and
In this study the influence of
many other chemical mutagens (Siebert
quercetin glycoside,namely rutin also 3,4-
and Elsenbrand, (1974); Zimmermann et
dihydroxy benzoic acid (protochatechuic
al., (1975); Altwaty (1999);Anjaria and
acid) on insecticide chlorpyrifos induced
Rao (2001) and Buschini et al.,(2003 and
mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
2004) .
strain D7 are investigated.
Flavonoids are widely distributed in

the plant Kingdom and are strong
Materials and methods
antioxidants (NaKatani, 1990 and KayoKo

et al., 1996).
1- Yeast strain
The antimutagenic activity of some
The D7 strain of Saccharomyces
of the isolated flavonoids from Senna
cereviciae was used as a test organism
species against mutation in yeast, caused
(Courtesy of F.K. Zimmermann.Darmstad,
by insecticide, will be studied. The short
Germany). This strain has the following
term tests have been used to detect the
genotype: ade2-40 / ade2-119. Trp5-
various physical, chemical, and biological
12/trp5-27, ilvl-92/ilvl-92. It is used for
agents (Anuradha et al., 1996).More
the simultaneous detection of induced
recently these same tests have been used to
reverse mutation, mitotic gene conversion,

Full Paper (vol.23 paper# 18)