STRUCTURAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 22 : 1- 16 March 2006
1687 - 2002
Structural And Histochemical Changes Of Albino Rat Kidney
Under The Effect Of Injectable Contraceptive
Mamdouh A. Ghali
Histology Department Al-Azhar - Faculty of Medicine
The choice of safe and effective method for fertility control still under continuous search.
So, discovery of structures having long duration of action which made administration by
injection was an attractive alternative to oral contraceptives. Medroxyprogesterone acetate
emerged from this early work as promising injectable long acting contraceptive with minimal
This work was planned to evaluate the structural and histochemical changes induced by
injectable contraceptive Depo-provera (MPA), on the kidney of adult female Albino rats as well
as testing the degree of reversibility of changes that may develop after the arrest of its use.
Thirty adult female Albino rats were used in this work and divided into three equal groups.
Group I was used as a control, group II was intramuscularly injected with MPA 4 times (2.7 mg
/ rat every 3 oestrus cycles) and sacrificed one day after arrest of the injection, while , group III
the animals were injected with MPA by the same dose and sacrificed 30 days after arrest of the
The abdominal aorta was exposed and Indian ink injection was injected to study the renal
vascular changes. The animals were sacrificed, the kidney was dissected and paraffin sections
were prepared and stained by haematoxylin and eosin and PAS technique to study the
microscopic structure and the distribution of PAS+ve materials respectively. Frozen sections
were prepared and stained by both Gomori and Nachla's techniques to study the activity of acid
phosphatase enzyme and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme respectively. The obtained data were
statistically analyzed using Student's t.test.
The injected groups showed atrophy of tubular epithelium, dilatation of tubular lumina.
All recovery groups were nearly similar to normal state except PAS+ve material of renal tubules
which were nearly similar to injected groups. The treated groups showed significant increase in
vascular distribution and PAS+ve materials. While, non significant changes were noticed in the
activity of acid phosphatase and succinic dehydrogenase enzymes.
It was concluded that there are reversible structural and histochemical changes in the rat kidney
under the effect of MPA. So, the use of MPA could be considered as a safe contraceptive
The need for effective, safe and easy
adverse effects of oral pills which may be
method of contraception has not diminished
due to its estrogen component.
with the advance in the different contr-
Medroxyrogesterone acetate (MPA)
aceptive methodology. Oral administration
was first used for treatment of habitual
of contraceptives results in immediately
abortion and endometriosis (Kennedy,
high blood hormones that decrease with
1978). Using a single dose of MPA (1-4
time and repetitive doses must be given at
gm), for the treatment of premature labor
frequent intervals to keep the blood levels
was found to protect against pregnancy for
within the effective range. So, studies have
12 to 24 months (Coutinho and De Souza,
been performed to find a suitable long
1966). MPA emerged from the early rese-
acting hormonal contraceptive to avoid the
arch as a promising injectable contraceptive
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 22 : 17- 28 March 2006
1687 - 2002
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor And Soluble Adhesion Molecules
As A Diagnostic Markers For Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis In
Cirrhotic Liver Disease
(1) Hamdia Ezzat Ahmed, (2)Ahmed Dorrah,
(3)Eman M Abd El-Rahman, and (1) Maha M. Abd El-Mohsen
(1)Clinical Pathology, (2)Tropical Medicine Dept. & (3)Internal Medicine Department
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a frequent and severe complication in cirrhotic
patients with ascites that usually results in renal failure and death despite the efficacy of the
current antibiotic therapy.
The aim of this study was determine serum and ascitic fluid of soluble-L selectin (s-L
Selectin), intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
(VCAM-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cirrhotic patients, and to search
for a relationship between them and SBP.
This study was performed on 30 cirrhotic patients with SBP. Their ages ranged (from 38-
55 years) with mean of (32 + 5.5), 30 cirrhotic patients with non-infected ascites; their ages
ranged (from 30-52 years) with mean of (35 + 6.5). This group considered as cirrhotic control
group and 20 healthy control subjects their ages ranged (from 28-55 years) with mean of (30 +
Serum and ascitic fluid of adhesion molecules as well as VEGF levels were significantly
higher in cirrhotic patients with SBP as well as cirrhotic patients with non-infected ascites as
compared to healthy control group.
There were significant increase in serum and ascitic fluid level of leukocyte, PMN and
ICAM-1 in SBP as compared to cirrhotic with non-infected ascites. There was non-significant
decrease in serum and AF level of VEGF in cirrhotic control group as compared to SBP group.
The ascitic fluid PMN and s-L Selectin were higher in culture positive SBP patients
particularly in those with gram positive isolates, where these are non-significant increase in
serum and ascitic fluid level of VEGF in culture positive SBP than culture negative cases.
Positive correlation was found between serum and ascitic fluid level of ICAM-1 in SBP and
non-infected cirrhotic group. Also, positive correlation was found between VEGF levels in
serum ascetic fluid levels in both cirrhotic groups (SBP and non-infected cirrhotic group).
These data suggest that: Significant elevated level of VEGF in both SBP and non infected
cirrhotic patient may have pathophsiological consequences of local regulation of vascular tone
and endothelial permeability, significant elevated level of adhesion molecules in both SBP and
non-infected cirrhotic patients are due to inflammatory response and endothelial cell activation.
Serum and ascetic fluid of ICAM-1 can be used as useful marker for diagnosis of SBP and for
monitoring the treatment of cirrhotic patients.
The prevalence of SBP in unselected
(SBP) is common complication in patients
cirrhotic patients admitted to a hospital
with liver cirrhosis and ascites and is
ranges between 20% and 30% and it is
associated with a high mortality rate despite
associated with a 30%-50% mortality rate
the efficacy of the current antibiotic therapy
Selgas et al. (1996), reported that
Renal Replacement Therapy And Increased Risk Of Cardiovascular Disease In El-Minia Governorate, Upper Egypt
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 22 : 29 - 38 March 2006
1687 - 2002
Renal Replacement Therapy And Increased Risk Of Cardiovascular Disease
In El-Minia Governorate, Upper Egypt
El-Minshawy O*, and Kamel E G**
Departments of internal Medicine* and Public Health of Medicine**, El-Minia
University, El Minia, Egypt
Introduction: End stage renal disease (ESRD) is one of the main health problems in El
Minia Governorate Currently, hemodialysis (HD) represents the main mode for treatment of
ESRD in El Minia Governorate. El Minia Governorate consists of 9 districts and total
population of 4.6 millions. The aim of this study: is to describe the prevalence rate and etiology
of ESRD in patients under Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) in El Minia Governorate during
the year 2005 and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in this group of patients. Material and
Method: Patients of ESRD were interviewed and questionnaires were filled out by the
investigators. The questionnair included personal data, past history of relevant diseases, renal
biopsy results, ultrasonography, dialysis frequency, lipid profile, ECG, Echocardiography and
other data investigating the cause of ESRD and the causes of death. Results: This study included
614 patients, that is 51 % of the estimated total number of patients treated by RRT in El-Minia
governorate. The prevalence of ESRD in El- Minia governorate is 260/ per million population
(PMP). Most patients are treated by hemodialysis (HD) (97.2 %) while only 2.8% are treated by
either peritoneal dialysis or renal transplantation. The etiology of ESRD was unknown in 28%
of cases while hypertension was responsible for 20.7% of cases, obstructive uropathy 12.7%,
chronic glomerulonephritis 10.4%, analgesic nephropathy 6% chronic pyelonephritis 5.8%, and
diabetic nephropathy 5%. Other causes such as gouty nephropathy, collagen diseases, toxaemia
of pregnancy and lupus nephritis constituted 7% of cases.The prevalence of ischemic heart
disease was 16.5%, congestive heart failure 28% Cerebrovascular accidents 5%, the death rate
among HD patients during this year was 210/1000. Recommendation: Education program for
nephrologists and practitioners should be strengthened with special emphasis on etiological
factors leading to ESRD , blood pressure control with focus on systolic pressure appears to be
an important stratgey to improve outcomes in HD patients, Attempts to establish a program for
renal Transplantation should be encourged.
End stage renal disease (ESRD) is one
10 per million in 1974 to about 165 per
of the main health problems in El Minia
million in 1995 (Afifi and Abd El Karim
Governorate Currently, hemodialysis (HD)
1999). In the five North African countries
represents the main mode for treatment of
the incidence of renal disaese is much
(ESRD) in El Minia Governorate. El Minia
higher than that in the west yet the
Governorate consists of 9 districts and total
prevalance is relatively lower which mirrors
population of 4.6 millions. The epidemi-
the adequacy of medical care facilities
ology of ESRD has been examined once in
2002 by ( El Minshawy et al., 2002)
Despite the aggressive treatment of
however there is no reliable data neither on
diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperli-
Cardiovascular disease nor on its risk
pedemia the incidence and prevalence rates
factors in El Minia Governorate hemodi-
of ESRD continues to increase world wide
(Satko et al., 2005)
In Egypt the prevalance of dialysis
Chronic kidney disaese (CKD) is
patients is presumed to have increased from
becoming an independent risk factor for
Leptin Level and Plasma Prothrombotic
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 22 :39 - 48 March 2006
1687 - 2002
Leptin Level and Plasma Prothrombotic
Factors in Obese Subjects
(1) Hamdia Ezzat, (2)Eman M Abd El-Rahman,
(2) Sabilah G Mousa, and Eman A Mahmoud(3)
(1)Clinical Pathology & (2)Internal Medicine and (3) Rheumatology & Rehabilitation
Departments, Al-Azhar and Assiut University
Obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Abnormalities in coagulation and haemostasis represent a well-known link between obesity and
thrombosis (both arterial and venous).
In human, production of a depocyte-derived peptide, leptin has been linked to adiposity;
recent studies have shown that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1),a prothrombotic factor
associated with atherosclerosis complication is also produced in adipose tissue.
Several studies reported that obese subjects had elevated levels of vonWillbrand factor (vWF)
and fibrinogen .
The aim of this work is to examine the relationship of obesity, fat distribution and serum
leptin concentration with plasma levels of Prothrombotic factors (PAI-1 (vWF) and
fibrinogen) and lipid pattern (Triglycerides and Cholesterol) as metabolic parameters.
The body fat distribution was evaluated by measuring the body mass index ( BMI) and waist-to-
hip ratio (WHR).
This study was carried out on four groups:
Group I (Control Group): Which is subdivided into two groups:
Group Ia: Consists of 10 apparently healthy normal females with BMI < 25 kg/m2.
Group Ib: Consists of 10 apparently healthy normal males with BMI < 25 kg/m2.
Group II (Female Obese): 16 obese females with BMI > 30 kg/m2.
Group III (Male Obese): 16 Obese males with BMI > 30 kg/m2.
Results can be summarized as follows:
1. Very highly significant increase in serum leptin levels in group II and III vs group I
(P<0.0001). Serum leptin was increased non-significantly in female group than male
group (P> 0.05).
2. Highly significant increase in serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides
levels in group II and III vs group I.
3. Obese subjects (group II and group III) had higher plasma concentration of all
prothrombotic factors as compared to lean groups (GI) . PAI-1 P< 0.0001 for both
obese groups, vWF and fibrinogen, P< 0.001 for both obese groups.
4. Significant increase in plasma levels of both PAI-1 and fibrinogen in female obese as
compared to male obese (P < 0.05). Plasma level of vWF was increased non-
Significantly in female obese than male obese (P > 0.05).
There was significant positive correlation between BMI and WHR, also there was a
significant positive correlation between both of them and serum leptin concentration, plasma
PAI-1, vWF and fibrinogen in groups II and group III.
WHR are positively associated with serum cholesterol and triglycerides in group II and
There was significant positive correlation between leptin concentration and plasma PAI-
1, vWF, fibrinogen, cholesterol and triglycerides in both obese groups.
Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminsilicate Protects Against Genotoxic Effects In Zeralenone-Treated Balb/C Mice
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 22 :49 - 59 March 2006
1687 - 2002
Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminsilicate Protects Against Genotoxic
Effects In Zeralenone-Treated Balb/C Mice
Samir Abbčsa,*, Jalila Ben Salah-Abbčsa, Zouhour Ouanesb, Hassan Bachab,
Omar Othmana , Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahhabc, Ridha Oueslatia
aLaboratory of Environmental Immunology Microbiology and Cancerology, Faculty of Sciences
Bizerte, 7021 Zarzouna, Tunisia. bLaboratory of Research on Biologically Compatible
Compounds, Faculty of Dentistry, Rue Avicenne, 5019 Monastir , Tunisia. cFood Toxicology &
Contaminants Dept. Nationa l Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a potent estrogenic metabolite mycotoxin produced by some
Fusarium species. Few studies have been successfully employed to get rid of the ZEN
contamination in foods. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of hydrated sodium
calcium aluminsilicate (HSCAS) to protect Balb/c mice against cytotoxicity and genotoxicity
induced by ZEN. Mice were divided into nine experimental groups (12 mice/group) included
the control group, the olive oil group, the groups treated orally with a single dose of HSCAS at
doses level of 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg b.w, the group treated orally with a single dose of ZEN
(40 mg/kg b.w), the group treated with ZEN plus HSCAS (400 mg/kg b.w), the group received
Colchicin (4 mg/kg bw) as a positive control for micronucleus assay and the group treated with
mitomycin C (1 mg/kg bw) as a positive control for chromosome aberrations assay. Forty eight
hours after treatment, the femur and tibia were dissected out and bone marrow was obtained for
different assays. The results showed that ZEN was cytotoxic and genotoxic to Balb/c mice as
indicated by the increase in frequencies of polychromatic erythrocytes micronucleated
(PCEMN) and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. The simultaneous administration
of HSCAS with ZEN resulted in a decrease of PCEMN number and chromosomal aberrations
frequency and increased the polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) in bone marrow cells compared
with the ZEN alone group. It could be concluded that HSCAS itself was safe at different tested
doses and efficient in the prevention of ZEN induced clastogenicity in mice at a dose level as
low as 400 mg/kg b.w.
Keywords: HSCAS; Zearalenone; Micronuclei; Chromosome aberrations; Prevention.
The contamination of food and
implicated in numerous mycotoxicosis in
feedstuff with mycotoxins represents a
farm animals and in humans (Etienne and
worldwide problem for both human and
Jammali 1982; Saenz de Rodriguez et al.,
animals. These toxins originate from molds
which grow on cereals and stored plants.
Tomaszewski et al., 1998). There are also
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a phenolic rescorcy-
data on its capability to induce adverse liver
clic acid lactone, produced by certain
lesions with subsequent development of
Fusarium spp which infect cereals and
hepatocarcinoma and pituitary tumours,
grains, such as corn, oats, wheat and hay
indicating that these tissues should be
(Coulombe et al., 1993; Kuiper-Goodman
considered as target organs for ZEN in vivo
et al., 1987). Although ZEN may be
(Ouanes et al., 2005).
considered a phytoestrogen that is naturally
Most of the carcinogenic mycotoxins
occurring and found associated with grains
are genotoxic agents that produce chrom-
(Nikov et al., 2000). ZEN has been
osomal aberrations, micronuclei, sister
Antioxidant effects of parsley and panax ginseng extract standardized with ginsenosides Rg3 against alteration induced in repr
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 22 : 60 - 72 March 2006
1687 - 2002
Antioxidant effect of parsley and panax ginseng extract standardized
with ginsenosides Rg3 against alteration induced in reproductive
functions in male mice
Aziza M. Hassan1 and Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahhab2
1Cell Biology Dept. and 2Food Toxicology & Contaminants Dept.
National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
In the present study, the antigcidant effects of parsley oil and panax ginseng have been
evaluated against the clastogenecity of ZEN. One hundred and eight mature male mice were
distributed into nine treatment groups, including the control group and the groups treated with
parsley oil (0.6 ml/kg b.w), panax ginseng extract (40 mg/kg b.w) or parsley oil plus panax
ginseng extract with or without ZEN (10 µg/kg b.w). Animals within different treatment groups
were divided into two subgroups (A and B). Subgroup A were used for the determination of
serum testosterone levels and chromosomal aberrations and received their respective doses for
two weeks whereas, subgroup B were used for sperm abnormality and received their respective
doses twice a day for one week and sacrificed after 30 days. The results indicated that ZEN
treatment resulted in a significant decrease in testosterone concentration, sperm count and sperm
motility. Whereas it caused a significant increase in abnormal sperms counts and total
chromosomal aberrations in germ cells. Animals treated with parsley oil or panax ginseng
extract alone or in combination were comparable to the controls regarding all the tested
parameters. The combined treatment with ZEN and parsley oil, panax ginseng or parsley oil
plus panax ginseng extract resulted in a significant improvement in all tested parameters.
Moreover, parsley oil was found to be effective than panax ginseng extract and the combined
treatment was more effective than the single treatment. It could be concluded that both parsley
oil and panax ginseng extract induced a protective action against ZEN-induced alteration in the
reproductive performance and the combined treatment may be useful than the single treatment.
Key words: Zearalenone, parsley oil, panax ginseng, cytogenetic, germ cells, testis, testosterone
and chromosomal aberration.
Herbal remedies are used world wide to
for more than 2,000 years. Parsley is a
alleviate symptoms, to treat illnesses, and to
member of the Umbelliferae family that has
promote overall wellness. An estimated
been employed in the food, pharmaceutical,
60% of the world's population and 40% of
perfume, and cosmetics industries (Lopez et
Americans use herbal remedies (Astin,
al., 1999). It is widely distributed in Egypt
1998). However, use of medicinal herbs
and grown in gardens and fields. Parsley
may be unsupervised and unproved efficacy
has been reported to have a number of
(Boniel and Dannon 2001; Ernst and
possible medicinal attributes including,
antimicrobial, (Wong and Kitts 2006)
Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is an
antianemic, menorrhagic, (Baytop, 1984)
important culinary herb native to the
anticoagulant, antihyperlipidemic, antihep-
Mediterranean area. It has been cultivated
atotoxic, (Ozturk et al., 1991) antioxidant,
Some Biochemical Parameters Of Young Male Albino Rats Treated With Ponceau 4 R And Vitamin E
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 22 : 73 - 79 March 2006
1687 - 2002
Some Biochemical Parameters Of Young Male Albino Rats Treated With
Ponceau 4 R And Vitamin E.
Eman G. E. Helal*, Mahmoud A. El-Kassas*,Samer A. M. Zaahkouk*, Amany
F. Mahmoud** and Hesham G. Abdel-Wahed*
Departments of Zoology Faculty of Science - Al-Azhar University(Girls) * and Faculty
of Home Economics- jeddah, K.S.A. **
The current study aimed to clarify hazardous effect of ponceau 4R as food colour on rats
and the effect of vitamin E as an antioxidant to prevent its toxic effect. Fourty premature
growing male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first served as control group, the
second supplemented with vitamin E (150 mg/kg),the third treated with ponceau 4R(0.19
mg/kg) and fourth treated with ponceau 4R(0.19 mg/kg) and vitamin E (150 mg/kg). Half of
each group was treated for 3 m, the other half was treated for 6 months.
Rats treated with ponceau 4R showed highly significant decrease (P<0.01) in serum total
lipids, proteins, albumin levels and cholinesterase activity throughout the experimental period,
while recorded a significant decrease (P<0.05) in glucose level till the end of the experiment
and in globulin level and A/G ratio after 3 months of treatment only. On the other hand,
significant increase was detected in total cholesterol level (P < .01) and AST activity (P < .05)
after both periods of treatment, while ALT activity showed insignificant change. It seams from
the presents study that vitamin E has protective effect against the side effect of ponceau 4R on
Key words: Ponceau 4R , vitamin E, food colour and antioxidant.
Food additives are substances that not
are derived from chemical substances
normally consumed as a food by itself or as
(Hannaa and Azzah, 1999).
a typical ingredient of the food. The impor-
Antioxidant is a molecule stable enough to
tance of chemical food additives has been
donate an electron to rampaging free radical
increasingly emphasized in recent years for a
and neutralize it. Vitamin E is one of the
technological purpose in the manufacture,
lighter antioxidants found in the diet (mainly
stored in adipose tissues, liver and muscle)
transport (FAO & WHO,1991) and also to
(Abdel- Khalek et al., 2003).
enhance the quality of food products
Vitamin E is a principle antioxidant in
(Hannaa and Azzah, 1999).
the body and providing a protective role to
But also, food additives are conceded
prevent oxidantion of unsaturated fats. It
to be one of the difficult problems which
plays a role in cancer preventation (Metin et
cause some toxicological effects on children,
al.,2003 and Guyton&Hall,2004).
specially in the age of nursery, because they
Many toxicological aspects have been
used food containing colorants and additives
noticed in children in the age of nursery. So,
in great amounts which attracts their
this attracts our attention to study the
changes of biochemical parameters of
Food colourants such as ponceau 4R
premature rats which produced after long
are (is use all over the world on great
term administration of one resample food
amounts) one of synthetic colourants which
colour (ponceau 4R) and to exam one of
Effect of Monthly Injectable Contraceptive (Mesigyna) on the Uterus of Adult Female Albino Rat: Histological and Immunohistoch
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 22 : 80 97 March 2006
1687 - 2002
Effect of Monthly Injectable Contraceptive (Mesigyna) on the Uterus of
Adult Female Albino Rat: Histological and Immunohistochemical Study
Abeer M. Hassan, Magda M. Naim, Somaya H. Mahmoud, Fouad M. Badr.
Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University.
Thirty two adult female albino rats were randomized into 2 main groups (control and
experimental). The control group (n=8) received IM injection of 0.3 ml of the drug vehicle
(castor oil & benzyl benzoate) once every 5 days for 6 times. 50% of rats of this group were
scarificed after 24 hours of the last injection while the other 50% were left for 15 days.
Experimental group was divided into 2; experimental group 1; E1 (n=12) received IM injection
of 1.5 mg/kg BW of the drug (Mesigyna), once every 5 days for 6 times, and were sacrificed 24
hours after the last injection. Experimental group 2; E2 (n=12) were injected as in group E1
then left for 15 days. Uterine tissue was used for various techniques; histological (H&E &
Masson's trichrome) and immunohistochemical (staining of progesterone receptors, using
Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were done to assess the degree of uterine
affection. Quantitative measurements (optical density, color area percentage, line distance &
cells count) were performed using the image analyzer. Mesigyna injection showed increased
endometrial folding (91.6% of the animals) with decreased endometrial thickness. Luminal
epithelium showed proliferation with pseudostratification of its nuclei (75% of animals),
necrotic changes (31.3% of animals), hyperplasia (epithelial tufting; in 25% of animals) and
desquamation (8.3%of animals). Increased gland size and stromal hypercellularity were also
observed. Polymorphonuclear cellular infiltration in both endometrium and myometrium,
Vascular congestion and increased myometrial thickness were respectively seen in 83.33%, 63.5
%, 83.5% of E1 group animals. Mesigyna also caused reduction in the amount of collagen
fibers. Immunostaining revealed decreased number and optical density of progesterone
receptors in nuclei of surface epithelium, glandular epithelium and stromal cells while they were
increased in nuclei of smooth muscle fibers. Image analysis results confirmed both the
histological and the immunohistochemical results. After withdrawal of the drug (group E2),
results showed reduction in necrotic changes, endometrial folding, epithelial tufting and
hyperplasia. However there was an aggravation of Polymorphonuclear infiltration, vascular
congestion and immunohistochemical changes which indicated delayed recovery of these
changes in rat uterus under the effect of Mesigyna.
In conclusion Mesigyna was found to produce severe histopathological changes which
were not completely recovered after 15 days of drug stoppage.
Key Words: Mesigyna, uterus, rat, histology, immunohistochemistry.
This paper was presented at the 28th Conference of the Egyptian Society of Histology and
Family planning has been an
In spite of recent advances in contra-
important subject for population planners,
ceptive technology, the ideal contraceptive
couples and individuals because it aims for
has not yet been reached. The goal of
better health and because of its socio-
contraceptive research is to develop an
cultural benefits (The world health
effective long-acting method that does not
organization; WHO, 1993).
require an attention on daily basis or at each
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 22 : 98 110 March 2006
1687 - 2002
Effect Of Some Herbal Medicine On Some biochemical
paramcters In Diabetic Rats
Eman G.E. Helal, Mervat A.Abbas*
Department of Zoology, Faculty of science (Girls) and Department of Biochemistry*
Faculty of Medicine for Girls Al Azhar University.
The current study was planned to follow up the effect of famous mixture used as a
hypoglycemic traditional medicine in Saudi Arabia on diabetic albino rats and their effects on
some biochemical parameter as DHEA .This study also aimed to study the effect of each plants
alone to illustrate the most powerful one of them.
The present study was carried out on eighty adult male albino rats (120+20gm b.wt). They
were randomly divided into eight groups. First group conserved as control group.The others
groups received alloxan to become diabetic .The second group conserved as diabetic, the third
group treated with a mixture of plants (0.5gm/120gm b.wt).From he fourth to eight group,the
rats treated with Nigella sativa (0.25gm/120gm b.wt),Aloe vera,Ferulaassa-foetid,Boswellia
Carterii Birdw and Commiphora myrrha respectively (0.5gm/120gm b.wt.).Our result showed
that the body weight was reduced significantly in diabetic group and Nigella sativa treated
group. On the other hand, treatment with commiphora myrrha revealed significant increase in
body weight gain, while mixture and Aloe vera treated rats recorded insignificant change.
Diabetic rats revealed a significant decrease in serum glucose and DHEA-S levels and liver
glycogen content, while insignificant difference was recoded in all treated groups. A significant
decrease in serum insulin level was observed in diabetic group, Nigella sativa and Ferula assa-
foetida treated groups, but insignificant different was recorded in the rest treated groups
throughout the experiment. A significant increase in LDH activities in diabetic and Ferula assa-
foetida treated groups was recorded while rest treated groups recorded insignificant change
During experimental period.
Diabetes mellitus is a condition in
activity in adipose cells. Circulating insulin
which there is a chronically raised blood
also increases the amount of amino acids
glucose concentration. it is caused by an
taken up by the cell and inhibits protein
absolute or relative lack of insulin, where
catabolism. Insulin appears to be essential
insulin is not being produced from the
for normal cell growth and function
pancreas or there is insufficient insulin or
(Micheal et al. 2003).
insulin action for the body's needs
(GarethWilliams et al., 2000) .Diabetes
And its metabolite DHEA sulfate are the
affects 20% of the population over the age
most abundant circulating adrenal storids in
of 65% years, and more than 90% of the
humans. DHEA has been shown to
older people with diabetes are type II
modulate glucose utilization in humans and
diabetics (Dawson, 1998). Most patients of
animals, but the mechanisms of DHEA
this form of diabetes are obese and their
action have not been clarified. The decline
glucose tolerance improves if they lose
in circulating DHEA levels occuring with
weight, (Ganang, 2003).
aging has been linked to the gradually
The effects of insulin on glucose
increasing prevelance of atherosclerosis,
metabolism are that insulin stimalates
obesity and diabetes in elderly individual
glycerol syuthesis and inhibits lipase
(perrini et al., 2004).
There have been considerable concern and controversy recently about the effects on health from the increasing exposure of popu
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 22 : 111- 125 March 2006
1687 - 2002
Do Molecular Markers Predict the Electromagnetic Field Treatment of
Cancer Through p53 Suppressor Gene?
Mohammed H. Awwad*; Amany A. Tohamy**; Nahed M. El-Abiad*** and
Abdel-Monsef A. Elhadary***
* Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Egypt.
** Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Egypt.
***Biological Application Department, Nuclear Research center, Atomic
Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt.
In recent years there have been enormous studies made toward understanding diagnosis
and treatment of cancer. Although there has been a great deal learned about cancer, the
treatments available for it have not progressed nearly as much. Attempted removal of the tumor
followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy still prevail as the most effective treatments used.
The present study used the electromagnetic fields (4.5 Hz) to treat tumor implanted in mice. The
Polymerase Chain Reaction/Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (PCR/RFLPs)
technique was selected as a biomarker to evaluate the effect of exposure to electromagnetic
fields in implanted Ehrlich tumor of female BALB/C mice. Eighty mice used and divided into
four groups (20 each); control, radiated (control exposed to 4.5 Hz), infected (control infected
by Ehrlich tumor) and infected exposed (infected exposed to 4.5 Hz). The duration of exposure
was for two hours every two days. Electromagnetic field exposure includes group 2 and group
4. DNA genome was extracted and p53 suppressor gene detected (~2130 bp). AatI, BanII, EaeI
restriction endonucleases did not differentiate between the PCR products (p53 genes) of the four
groups (control, radiated, infected and infected exposed mice groups). BanI, DraI, DraIII, HaeII
and PstI differentiated between the four groups. The results approved that the electromagnetic
fields could treat the tumor and PCR\RFLPs could be useful diagnostic technique.
Key words: electromagnetic field, cancer, p53 gene, PCR/RFLP.
There have been considerable concern
highfrequency fields of 1 to 100 mT with a
and controversy recently about the effects
pulsed waveform (Lacy-Hulbert et al.,
on health from the increasing exposure of
populations to extremely low-frequency
Mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor
gene is one of the most frequently reported
(Merchant et al., 1994). These concerns
events in neoplastic cells, occurring in
have centered principally on childhood
approximately 50% of human cancers
cancer, but other diseases have been
(Greenblatt et al., 1994 and Hsieh et al,
similarly implicated. It is generally
2001). The most prevalent types of p53
accepted that EMFs can exert biological
mutation found were G:C to A:T transitions
effects; they have been widely used in
and G:C to T:A transversions. Studies have
clinical practice to promote processes such
demonstrated that these types of mutations
as neural regeneration and bone repair
are the most common mutations observed
(Bassett, 1993). However, these treatments
in animals (Belinsky et al, 1991; Oreffo et
generally use magnetic field strengths that
al, 1993; Ronai et al, 1993; Chang et al,
exceed those encountered in residential and
1996). There have been many reports
commercial environments, commonly being
concerning the utility of p53 gene
Histopathological Studies on Some Vital Organs of Mice Exposed To Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 22 : 126-138 March 2006
1687 - 2002
Histopathological Studies on Some Vital Organs of Mice Exposed To
Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field
(1) Aida Abd El-Karim Salama, (2) Neveen Hussein Mahmoud,
(3)Hoda Mahmoud Shoman and (4) Asmaa Abdel-Hadi Dahshan
(1) Biophysics Dep. (2),(3) and (4) Zoology Dep.
Faculty of Science AL-Azhar University for Girls
Twenty five male Swiss albino mice were used in this study to detect the effect of
extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELFMF) 2 milli Tesla-50 Hertz (2 mT,50 Hz) 8
hours/day at different time intervals. Mice were divided into five groups, control group and 4
treated groups, two groups represented the direct effect of (ELFMF) and the other two
represented the late effect. The direct effect groups were sacrificed direcly after the end of
exposure to (ELFMF), while the late effect groups were sacrificed after certain duration period
of the exposure away from (ELFMF). In the present work, histopathological studies revealed
severe degeneration changes in kidney, spleen and testes of all groups of mice direct and late
effect groups and no sign of complete recovery could be detected in the late effect groups.
Glomerular volume, number of glomeruli, relative glomerular blood volume (RGBV) of the
kidney; and the mean number cells of spermatogenesis cells of the testes were calculated in
control and treated groups. The histopathological changes observed in the kidney, spleen and
testes of treated mice were less in direct effect groups than that observed in late effect groups.
Researches and clinical experiences
50 Hz MF affected the cell junction protein
confirm the interaction of magnetic
environment with living organisms causing
significant biological effects depending on
Peterson, et al. (1992), transplantation
the field strength and duration of exposure
of bone marrow cells of magnetic-field-
(Graham et al,. 1994 and King, 1998). One
exposed mice led to increased numbers of
of the critical issues is the possibility that
spleen colonies (CFU-S 7d) in conditioned
such fields may adversely affect the cell
recipient mice.El-Kholy (1999) studied the
membrane receptors and permeability
effect of 50 Hz magnetic field on spleen
leading to disturbing the physiological
structural changes of mice exposed to X
processes in organisms. Kang et al. (1997),
radiation, he found cytoplasmic nuclear
and Sonnier et al (2000), studied the
degeneration. Ivanova and Kartasheve
biological effect of magnetic field 0.5 T at 7
(1991) and Lokhmatova and Pastukhova
Hz on kidney of mice, they found that
(1993) observed chronic influence of 50 Hz
degenerated tubules were scattered in the
ELFMF on spermatogenesis process of
cortical area where a little change was
mice testis, disturbances in spermatogonia
observed in glomeruli in the cortex and
and spermatids as well as reduction of the
collecting tubules in the medulla.
number of testosterone producing cells.
Iuldashev (2002) proved that 50 Hz
Zsolt et al, (2004) found histopathological
magnetic field of 15 mT affect the mitotic
alterations in testis, epididymes, adrenal,
division of proximal tubules. He recorded a
prostates and pituitary glands of male mice
change in the ratio of the total area
exposed to 50 Hz MF.
glomerular capillaries to glomerular area
The present work was planned to
indicating asynchronism of their filling with
clarify the effect of extremely low
blood. Somosuy et al, (2004) proved that
frequency 2 mT, 50 Hz magnetic field on
Genotoxicity induced by drug-drug interaction between the antidepressant sertraline and the antibiotic erythromycin in mice
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 22 : 139-145 March 2006
Genotoxicity induced by drug-drug interaction between the
antidepressant sertraline and the antibiotic erythromycin in mice
bone marrow cells.
Amany A. Tohamy
Zoology Department, Faculty of science, Helwan University
Drug-drug interaction represents a widely distributed health problem. The
pharmacological action and side effects of two or more drugs can act additively or
antagonistically. The present study was designed to evaluate the possible genotoxicity of
concurrent treatment with the antidepressant sertraline, one of the serotonin reuptake inhibitors
(SSRI) and the broad spectrum macrolide antibiotic erythromycin.
Sertraline and erythromycin are metabolized through CYP3A4 which is one of the
cytochrome P-450 enzymes in liver and are responsible for the metabolism of large number of
endogenous substrates and therapeutic agents.
The frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs), micronucleated
normochromatic erythrocytes (MNNCEs) and the ratio PCE/NCE were evaluated to measure
the genotoxicity of separate and combined treatment with the tested two drugs.
Clinical doses of both sertraline (0.71 mg /kg b.w.) and erythromcyin strearate (14.30 mg /
kg b.w.) were used. Groups of animals received single separate or combined doses of either
sertraline and/or erythromycin, and sacrificed after 24 hours. Other groups of mice were treated
in the same way but for five consecutive days and sacrificed 24 hours after the last injection. In
all treated groups, the percentage of PCEs increased significantly when compared with that of
the negative control group which may indicate a stimulation of proliferative activity to an early
phase of cell depletion. The genotoxicity of multiple treatment for 5 consecutive days with
sertraline alone or in combination with erythromcyin was expressed in increased number of
The observed increased genotoxicity after multiple combined treatment with sertraline and
erythromycin may indicate increased risk of toxicity-based drug-drug interaction. This toxicity
may be due to the ability of sertraline and erythromycin to inhibit the activity of CYP3A4 which
lead to a prolonged storage period of drugs in the body and hence increased toxicity.
Key words : Genotoxicity, Drug-drug interaction, Sertraline, Erythromycin
Drug-drug interactions represent a
The selective serotonin reuptake
widely distributed health problem and are
inhibitors (SSRIs) have become the most
divided into pharmacodynamic (PD) and
frequency prescribed antidepressants. These
pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions. PD
medicines are thought to work by incre-
drug-drug interactions can change the
asing the activity of certain chemical, called
pharmacological effect of drugs.
serotonin, in the brain (Hemeryck and
Furthermore, the pharmacological
effect and side effects of two or more drugs
Sertraline is one of the SSRIs and is
can act additively or antagonistically. PK
marketed in Egypt under the trade name
drug-drug interactions are associated with
Lustral (Pfizer, Egypt). Sertraline is used to
inappropriate plasma concentrations of
drugs which can be the result of inadequate
compulsive disorder and panic disorder
absorption, transport, metabolism or elimin-
(Murdoch and Mc-Tavish, 1992). Henry et
ation (Piscitelli and Grallicano, 2001).
al. (2004) stated that sertraline is
Body Fat Distribution, Serum Leptin, And Insulin Resistance In Obese Subjects With Obstructive Sleep Apnoea
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 22 : 146-154 March 2006
Body Fat Distribution, Serum Leptin, And Insulin Resistance In Obese
Subjects With Obstructive Sleep Apnoea.
Hassan ZA*,Attia MF**, Ahmed AH**;Hassan HA***,
Endocrinology*and General Medicine*** Departments, Alazhar University (girls),
ENT Department** Alazhar university (boys), Clinical pathology Department****
Ain Shams University.
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OS A) is strongly associated with obesity and is characterized
by endocrine and metabolic changes.
The aim of the present study is to clarify whether there is interrelationship between body
fat, serum leptin, glucose-insulin metabolism and OSA.
Subjects and measurements: we studied 23 obese subjects with OSA (13 males,& 10
females; age mean 36 ± 4.4 years; BMI: 31.7 ± 3.6 kg/m2; WHR: 1.2 ± .25 in males and
0.81+.5 in females ;Apnoea Index "AI"( 9.2 ±6.1) event/hour of sleep by means of overnight
polysomnography; fasting glucose(109.8 ± 21.4 mg/dL) ; fasting insulin(18.6 ± 7.1 uU/L );
IR(6.7 ± 2.8); fasting leptin(577.69 ± 201.6 ng/ml). Results were compared with those of 10
healthy normal weight subjects(6 males,4 females ;age mean 36.8±4.4 years; BMI: 25 ± 0.24
kg/m2; WHR: 0.86 ± 0.01; AI: 2.1 ± 1.1 event/hour; fasting glucose(71.7 ± 2.8 mg /dL ); fasting
insulin(15.3 ± .48 uU/L ); IR(4.6 ± .17); fasting leptin (42.4 ± 11.5 ng/ml).
Results: Anthropometric measurements of OSA subjects were highly significantly greater
than controls; body weight (P<0.003); BMI (P<0.00); waist (P<0.000); and WHR (P<0.000).
Fasting glucose levels; fasting plasma insulin; IR and leptin levels were significantly higher in
OSA subjects than controls (P<0.000, 0.03, 0.002; & 0.000 ) respectively. Overnight
polysomnography revealed significant difference between OSA subjects and controls as regards
The major dependent outcome variable was the apnoea index (AI), "the average number of
apnoeas per hour of sleep determined by overnight polysomnography". OSA was defined as AI
5. Highly significant correlation between AI and WHR (P<0.00); Fasting insulin (P<0.04); IR
(P<001) and Leptin (P<0.000) were detected. Also leptin concentrations correlated with fasting
insulin (P<0.02); IR (P<0.00) and WHR (P<0.000) besides the AI.
IN CONCLUSION: There is strong bidirectional, feed-forward pernicious correlation detected
between OSA in one side and each of visceral obesity, leptin, and IR; also between leptin,
obesity, and IR. This association may contribute to the pathological manifestations and somatic
sequale of this condition.
Leptin could have major role linking OSA with various metabolic abnormalities detected
in obese subjects.
High circulating leptin found in this study, suggests that both obesity and OSA may be
caused by a leptin resistant state.
Among obese subjects, it is visceral fat (WHR), rather than generalized obesity (BMI) that
predisposes to OSA.
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome
Approximately, 1-10% of men and 2% of
(OSAS) is a common disorder characterized
women have OSA as defined by apnoea
by disruptive snoring, frequent episodes of
apnoea and hypopnea during sleep.
hypersomnolence (Young et al, 1993). The
Molecular Biological Studies on the Effect of the Electromagnetic Fields on ETS-1 Oncogene
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 22 : 155-168 March 2006
Molecular Biological Studies on the Effect of the Electromagnetic Fields on
Amany A. Tohamy*; Mohammed H. Awwad**; Nahed M. El-Abiad*** and
Abdel-Monsef A. Elhadary***
*Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Egypt.
**Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Egypt.
***Biological Application Department, Nuclear Research center, Atomic Energy
Authority, Cairo, Egypt.
ETS-1 is the founding member of the ETS family of transcription factors. ETS factors
have important roles in oncogenesis, signal transduction and development. In human tumors,
ETS-1 is expressed in endothelial cells and fibroblasts of the tumor stroma and is proposed to
play a role in tumor vascularization and invasion by upregulating expression of matrix-
degrading proteases. In human carcinomas, ETS-1 is also expressed by neoplastic cells, but
little is known about the functional implications of this observation. The present study aimed to
detect the tumor by using electromagnetic fields through ETS-1 oncogene. The detection of
point mutations correlated with diseases is currently performed by digestion of PCR products
(PCR/RFLP) by using restriction endonucleases. It has been described here a method based
modified on primers during the PCR, and using some restriction endonucleases (AatI, BanI,
BanII, DraI, DraIII, EaeI, PstI and SacII) which create a restriction fragment length
polymorphism (RFLP) indicative of the studied mutation. The present study used the
electromagnetic fields (4.5 Hz); PCR/RFLPs technique was selected as a biomarker to evaluate
the effect of exposure to electromagnetic fields in implanted Ehrlich tumor of female BALB/C
mice. Eighty mice were used and divided into four groups (20 each); normal, exposed (exposed
to 4.5 Hz), infected (normal infected by Ehrlich tumor) and infected exposed (infected exposed
to 4.5 Hz). DNA genome was extracted and ETS-1 oncogene detected (~4460 bp). AatI, BanII
and EaeI restriction endonucleases did not differentiate between the PCR products (ETS-1
genes) of the four groups (normal, exposed, infected and infected exposed mice groups). DraIII,
SacII, PstI, BanI and DraI differentiated between the four groups. The results proved that the
electromagnetic fields could treat the tumor and PCR\RFLPs were able to be a useful diagnostic
Key words: electromagnetic field, cancer, ETS-1 oncogene, PCR/RFLP.
Studies of electromagnetic field
biotechnology, since it supplied an efficient
effects on cells have been carried out in
physical tool to permeabilize cells by
three major domains of high, low, and
opening hydrophilic pathways in the cell
extremely low electromagnetic fields. The
membrane, through which molecules could
application of high-pulsed electromagnetic
fields to cells has been associated mostly
gradients (Teissie, 2002; Gehl, 2003 and
with the phenomenon of electroporation
Weaver, 2003). Exposure of cells to
extremely low electromagnetic fields has
Zimmermann et al., 1974 and Kinosita and
Tsong, 1977). Its employment has gained
exposures of humans to low-frequency
wide use in the areas of cell biology and
electromagnetic and also, with possible
Impact of Hepatitis C Virus Infection on Kidney Transplantation
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 22 : 168 -173 March 2006
Impact of Hepatitis C Virus Infection on Kidney Transplantation
Internal Medicine and Nephrology Department, Ain Shams University.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increases morbimortality in renal transplantation.
Hepatitis C virus positive kidney transplant candidates who remain on the waiting list show a
greater risk of mortality than those who are transplanted. The aim of this study was to examine
the impact of HCV infection on patient and allograft survival after kidney transplantation.
Eighty two patients with end stage renal disease underwent kidney transplantation were
included in this study. The patients were classified into group I including 46 HCV negative
patients (HCV-) and group II including 36 HCV antibody and HCV-RNA positive patients
(HCV+). The immunosuppressive protocols were similar in both groups. All recipients were
followed up for 3years.Results: There were statistically insignificant differences (P>0.05)
between both groups as regard age, gender and donor type (living related or unrelated).
Hemodialysis duration before transplantation was highly significant (P< 0.01) longer among
HCV+ group (4.9± 3.7 years) compared to HCV- patients (2.4± 4.3 years).One patient died
from each group showing insignificant difference (P>0.05); 2 grafts (4.3%) lost in HCV- group
and 3 (8.3%) in HCV+ group with also insignificant difference (P>0.05). Five recipients
(10.9%) in group I experienced delayed graft function compared to 2 (5.6%) recipients in group
II with statistically insignificant difference. There was a significantly (P< 0.05) more number of
acute rejection episodes among HCV+ patients (11=30.6%) than HCV- patients (5=10.9%).New
onset diabetes mellitus occurred more among HCV+ (19.4%) than HCV- (8.7%) recipients,
however the difference was insignificant. There was a significant (P<0.05) higher incidence of
cytomegalovirus disease among HCV+ (11.1%) than HCV- (2.2%) recipients. Conclusion: This
study suggested that HCV positivity does not significantly affect patient and graft survival
despite the significant increased incidence of acute rejection episodes and cytomegalovirus
disease. Lastly, all measures should be taken to prevent HCV transmission in dialysis
Since hepatitis C virus (HCV) was
oved liver enzymes levels, had no effect on
identified in 1989 by Choo et al, as a main
HCV viremia, but seems also not to have a
cause of non-A non -B hepatitis, HCV
beneficial effect on liver fibrosis (5).
infection has achieved a great relevance in
nephrology on the basis of its high
Aim Of The Work
prevalence among dialysis patients, renal
allograft recipients as well as in essential
The aim of this study was to evaluate
mixed cryoglobulinemia with associated
the effect of HCV infection among end
stage renal disease (ESRD) patients after
itis(1,2,3). Renal transplantation confers an
undergoing kidney transplantation.
overall survival benefit in HCV +
hemodialysis patients with similar 5-year
Patients And Methods
patients and graft survival to those without
HCV infection(4). Unfortunately, there is no
This prospective study included 82
safe treatment for HCV infection after renal
patients with ESRD. All were receiving
transplantation. It has been reported rece-
their first living kidney transplants at Naser
ntly that ribavirin monotherapy impr-
Institute, and Ain Shams University
The Formation of Tetracycline in Date Medium by Mutants of Streptomyces aureofaciens Induced by Nitrosogiuanidine
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 22 : 174- 187 March 2006
The Formation of Tetracycline in Date Medium by Mutants of
Streptomyces aureofaciens Induced by Nitrosogiuanidine.
E. S. Ahmed¹ and Z. W. Sharawi².
1- Department of Cell Biology, National Research Center. Cairo, Egypt.
2- Department of Biology. Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University.
Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
The present study deals with the genotoxicity of Nitrosoguanidine (N.T.G.) - a chemical
mutagen- which was employed to induce auxotrophic mutations in the haploid wild type of
bacteria Streptomyces aureofaciens strain NCIMB 8234.
An increase in exposure time to the mutagen and dose of this mutagen led to a decrease in
the survival percentage and increase in the percentage of mutation. The mutants were cultured
in synthetic date fermentation medium, which contained Barni date-coat sugar extract as a
carbon source. The following parameters were determined: final pH, medium quantity, and
microbial cell biomass. All of the five mutants produced less antibiotic titers than the initial
organism this was noticed after measuring the inhibition zone of each created for
Staphylococcus aureus as a gram-positive pathogenic bacterium and Escherichia coli as a gram-
negative pathogenic bacterium.
In the past, bacteria were the most
host. The degree of selective toxicity
important cause of disease and mortality
depends on the specific mechanisms of
among humans. The introduction of
action of the drug. The most selective
antibiotics in human medicine has markedly
agents are those affecting structures (e.g.
reduced the impact of bacterial diseases on
cell wall) or functions (e.g. folic acid
synthesis) present only in prokaryotic cells.
Antibiotics are substances produced
The less selective antibiotics are those
by living organisms, which are able to kill
affecting protein (e.g. tetracyclines) or
or inhibit the growth of microorganisms.
nucleic acid synthesis (e.g. quinolones),
According to the literal sense of the word,
which are essential functions for both
substances produced synthetically (e.g.
prokaryotic (bacteria) and eukaryotic cells
sulfonamides or quinolones) Prescott and
(the host). Tetracyclines are one of the
Baggot (1994) should not be termed
cheapest classes of antibiotic available, and
antibiotics, and the use of a broader term
their cost in real terms is declining due to
(i.e. antimicrobial agent) would be more
improved manufacturing technology Finch
appropriate to indicate the complex of all
(1997). The pricing structure makes them
substances having a harmful effect on
particularly attractive for use in developing
nations Furthermore; the HIV Meeting
antibiotic is used throughout the present
2000 suggested the use of tetracyclines to
report as a synonym of antimicrobial agent.
reduce bacterial sexually transmitted
Antibiotics are also selectively toxic
diseases in the developing world. Col and
substances as they affect pathogenic
O'Connor (1987). Tetracycline efficiency
microorganisms more adversely than the
exists in inhibiting protein synthesis by
Efficacy of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on Second Degree of Burn Wound of Forearm
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 22 : 183- 189 March 2006
Efficacy of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on Second Degree of Burn
Wound of Forearm
Wafaa Borhan*, Maher El Kebelawy*, and AshrafEI Sebaie**.
* Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University.
**Department of surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University.
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen
therapy on second degree bum wound healing of the forearm. Thirty patients included in this
study (eighteen males and twelve females). All were suffering from deep second degree flame
bum in the forearm, their age ranged from thirty to forty years. The total burned surface area
was 15- 25%. They were randomly classified into two equal groups. The first group (15
patients) treated by the Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT) plus traditional conservative
treatment, while the second group, sea level air-breathing equivelent control group 15 patients
received placebo HBOT plus traditional conservative treatment. Assessment of the wound
surface area was performed before starting the study and after 15 days by using the metric graph
paper and computerized planimetry linked to summagraphic digitizer system .Procedure started
48 hrs post bum. The program was conducted at Naser Institute; oxygen was supplied 100% O2
at 2.4 Atmospheric Absolute (ATA) for two hours during each treatment period. Treatment was
given on four consecutive days each week for two weeks. The results of this study showed
significant decrease of the wound surface area in the treatment group (43.6%) than the control
group (18.91 %), reflecting efficacy of HBOT in healing process. It was concluded that, HBOT
seems effective in accelerating the healing rate and shortening of hospitalization time
on second degree bum wound of the forearm . -
Key Words: Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy, Bum, wound.
Thermal injury primarily results in the
pressured with oxygen. Dual or multi place
destruction of skin and secondarily involves
chambers arc designed to hold 2 or more
functions of the musculoskeletal system.
patients, up to as many as 36. Both types
The degree of musculoskeletal impairment
may be pressured with air while patients
is determined by the depth and extent of the
breathe oxygen via an oxygen mask, hood
bum injury (Martyn ,1990).
system, for times that typically extend 4-6
The healing of wound is the main
hours during which the patient breathes
problem for the physical therapist who
100% oxygen (Delaney and Montgomery,
deals with many functional problems of
burned patient. The ultimate goal of it is to
Because of toxic side effects from the
allow wound to close as rapidly as possible
systemic absorption of oxygen, which
(Richard and Staley,1994).
include pulmonary and eNS toxic reactions,
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the
localized therapy has popularity, Heng and
treatment in which a patient breathes 100%
others used disposable polyethylene bags,
oxygen intermittently under a pressure of
which has the advantages of being simple,
greater than sea level or one atmospheric
and less likely to cause cross- infection
pressure. This treatment can be carried out
(Heng et al,1984).
in one of two ways. Mono place chambers
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HEOT)
are single person chambers that are
is indicated for decompression sickness, air