Reldan and Ammonium Nitrate Induced Histopatjological and Fine Structural Changes in Testis of Mice The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 21: 1 ­ 15 December 2005
I.S.S.N: 12084

2002 1687

Reldan and Ammonium Nitrate Induced Histopatjological and Fine
Structural Changes in Testis of Mice

Mahmoud, A. El-Banhawy1, Nahed, H.A. Riad2, Shadia, A. Radwan3, Mona
El-Akkad4 and Aziza El-Wessemy5

1, 2, 4 Zoology Depts, Faculty Science, 3,5 Biology & Geology Depts, Faculty of
Education, Ain Shams University


Two agrochemicals, reldan insecticide and ammonium nitrate fertilizer affected the
histopathological and ultrastructural of mice testicular tissue. Mice were divided into 13 groups,
the first group served as a control group while the other groups treated with reldan or
ammonium nitrate. For each of the agrochemicals used, the ½ LD50 (12 mg/kg b.wt. for reldan
and 90 mg/kg b.wt. for ammonium nitrate) was given as a single dose to 3 groups of mice which
were sacrificed after 5, 10 and 15 days post-treatment, and as repeated daily doses to other
groups of mice for 5 and 10 days. Animals treated for 5 days were sacrificed 24 hrs after the last
dose, while those treated for 10 days were sacrificed 24 hrs or 5 days after the last dose. The
applied agrochemicals caused histopathological changes in the testes including, disorganization
of the basal lamina and germinal epithelium, maturation arrest at various degrees of degenerated
spermatocytes and spermatids in the testicular tissue. Ultrastructural examination showed
marked alterations and degeneration of organelles in germ cells, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells.


changes include shrinkage of the semini-
(fertilizers and insecticides) were planned
ferous tubules, degeneration of the germinal
to increase the food resources and improve
epithelium and appearance of large number
both quality and quantity of the beneficial
of Sertoli cells indicating testicular atrophy.
crops besides protecting them against the
Thus, they concluded massive degeneration
attacks of pests, they also act as potential
of all varieties of germ cells, and reduction
hazards for health in general. WHO (1975),
in the spermatozoa count. Also, the testes of
Dunnik et al. (1984) and WHO (1992) reco-
albino mice undergo histopathologic chan-
rded serious unwanted responses affecting
ges when treated with organophosphorus
man and his domestic animals, after the
"dimethoate". These changes included
utilization of agrochemicals. Reldan insec-
alterations of the normal architecture of
ticides, the choice in the present investi-
tubules, disorganization with variable
gation, is one of the wellknown organoph-
degrees of degeneration (hypoplasia and
spermatogenic arrest), as well as necrosis of
reported that the toxicity of organopho-
sphorus compounds is by phosphorylation
spermatids. In addition, hemorrhage and
of acetylcholine estrase, accumulation of
reduction of tubular diameter were reported
acetylcholine at the nerve synapses causing
(Sanad, 1993; Yosef, 1993; El-Sayyad et
serious nervous disorders. Observations of
al., 1995; Akbarsha and Sivasamy, 1997;
Ray et al. (1988, 1992) showed that the
Debnath and Mandal, 2000; Shaalan et al.,
testes of rats undergo histopathologic
2002 and Ismail, 2005).
changes when treated with the organo-
The toxic effects of ammonium nitrate
phosphorus compound "quinalphos" (250
have been described by Mohamed, (1993)
mg/kg b.wt.) after 13 and 26 days. These
who recorded marked degenerative changes

Full Paper (vol.21 paper# 1)

Toxic effects 0f paroxetine on sexual and reproductive functions of rats The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 21: 16 ­ 32 December 2005
I.S.S.N: 12084

2002 1687

Toxic effects of paroxetine on sexual and reproductive functions of rats

Inass EL-Gaafarawi*,Magdy Hassan *,Ghada Fouad**
and Fathy El-Komey*
*The National Center for Social and Criminological Research,and

**Medico-Legal Administration,Cairo,Egypt.


This study determined some appropriate parameters to detect male and female
reproductive, endocrine, and teratological toxicity besides genotoxic effects of paroxetine.
Several parameters concerning fertility were measured in male and female rats given oral doses
of paroxetine ( 0.36mg/100g b.wt./day) for a month. In addition, estimation of the drug residues
in male, female and fetus were carried out. There were alterations in serum concentration of
gonadotraphins: FSH, LH, PRL and in the sex hormones : testosterone, progesterone and
estradiol in male and female rats. These alterations were accompanied by sperm reduction,
sperm abnormalities, irregular shaped of seminiferous tubules, hypertrophy of geominal cells
and structural chromosomal aberrations in male rats. A reduction in mating and fertility indices
were observed with an increase in the number of resorbed fetuses, and a decrease in body
weight and crown rump length of rat embryos.


Paroxetine is one of the mostly used
Sexual dysfunction is a common side
antidepressant drugs in recent years. It is a
effect of SSRIs, occurring in more than
short acting selective serotonin reuptake
30% of patients. Sexual side effects have
inhibitor (SSRI) Perry (2004). As the name
emerged as a major clinical concern with
implies, the primary pharmacologic effect
many of the newer antidepressants.
of the SSRIs is to block the presynaptic
Approximately 30% to 40% of patients on
serotonin transporter receptor . SSRIs are
serotonergic antidepressants experience
more potent inhibitors of serotonin
sexual dysfunction (Michael, 1998). From
reuptake, and they have less effect on a1, a2,
the manufacturers data estimates of the
histaminic, and muscarinic receptors.
incidence of sexual dysfunction resulting
Paroxetine blocks the uptake of serotonin
from SSRIs ranges from 1.9-15.9% (Perry,
into human platelets (Grimsley et al.,
1992). Studies in animals also showed that
There is also sufficient evidence that
the drug is a potent and highly selective
all psychotropic drugs readily cross the
inhibitor of neuronal serotonin reuptake as
placenta to reach the fetus and may be
it has only very weak effects on
excreted into breast milk (Chisholm and
norepinephrine and dopamine neuronal
Kuller, 1997; Arnon et al., 2000; Bar-Oz et
reuptake (Swaby,1995). Paroxetine has no
al., 2000). Drugs in the fetus may have a
active metabolites, and a half-life of
higher unbound free fraction, easily
approximately one day. It is classified as a
penetrate into the brain, and undergo only
Pregnancy Category B drug (Swaby, 1995).
SSRI-induced changes in sexual function
metabolism (Arnon et al., 2000; Hines and
that can actually be beneficial in some
McCarver, 2002; McCarver and Hines,
clinical situations (Lee et al., 1996).
2002). Fetus, or infant exposure to

Full Paper (vol.21 paper# 2)

Study On Antioxidant Parameters in Mice Livers As Affected with Urtica pilulifera Extracts The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 21: 33 ­ 42 December 2005
I.S.S.N: 12084
200 ­
2 1687

Study of some Antioxidant Parameters in Mice Livers Affected with
Urtica pilulifera Extracts

A.H. Mahmoud* , H.M. Motawa**, H.E Wahba*** and A.Y. Ebrahim ***
*Department of Medicinal Chemistry, National Research Center.
**Department of Pharmacognosea, National Research Center.
***Department of Cultivation and Production of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants., National
Research Center, Egypt.


Urtica pilulifere extracts were found to exhibit an antioxidant effect on mice. The effect of
two doses of aqueous methanolic extract and other two doses of petroleum ether extract of different
plant parts was studied in liver homogenates of the animals. The parameters studied were protein,
glutathione reduced form, lipid peroxidation levels as well as the activities of glutathione
transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and superoxide
dismutase (SOD). Methanolic extracts induced greater effect on the measured antioxidant
parameters. Among all plant parts, the methanolic extract of the herb showed the best effect; where
the antioxidant activity enzymes were elevated and the lipid peroxidation was decreased. In
conclusion, Urtica pilulifera can be used as natural antioxidant, as a possible food supplement or
used in pharmaceutical industry.

Key words:
Urtica, medicinal plant extracts, antioxidant


There is an increasing interest towards
Urtica pilulifera (U.P.) is a good plant
medical plants and their active ingradients
which is classified as popular plant found in
since 1980's. Some of the underlying motives
the Palestinian area and in Sinai. Based on
can be listed as follows; countries lacking
number of informants who reported the use of
developed chemical industries are searching
this plant, it can be considered as most
for affordable treatment by using their own
important plant. Randal et al.,1999 tested the
plant sources, synthetic drugs show off their
toxicity of the plant and found that petroleum
dangerous side effects by time but medical
ether extracted from leaves and roots was
plants have generally centuries-long use and
completely non-leathal even at doses
little side effects, many commonly used drugs
reaching 12.8 mg /kg and considered non
such as steroidal compounds and ergot
toxic, U. P. does not have any mutagenic and
alkaloids can be purified from plants much
embyreogenic effects (Graf et al, 1994).
more economically compared to synthetic
Urtica sp. has a long history of use in
production. Medicinal plants have multiple
the home as an herbal remedy. A tea made
actions whereas synthetic drugs have usually
from the leaves has traditionally been used as
only one main effect and additional drugs like
a tonic and blood purifier. The whole plant is
vitamins are usually needed to prevent side
antiasthmatic, antidandruff, astringent, depu-
effects of synthetic drugs .Plant-derived drugs
tive, diuretic, galactogogue, haemostatic,
do not necessiate such polypharmacy
hypoglycaemic and a stimulating tonic
Delcourt et al.,1996). An infusion of the plant

Full Paper (vol.21 paper# 3)

Effect of oestrogen as a radioprotective agent on the structural changes of testis in irradiated rats The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 21: 43 ­ 52 December 2005
I.S.S.N: 12084

2002 1687

Effect of oestrogen as a radioprotective agent on the structural changes
of testis in irradiated rats.

Mamdouh, A. Ghali and Fathia, I. Khamis

HistologyDepartment Al-Azhar faculty of Medicine and Department of Radiation
Biology - National centre for Radiation Research and Technology.


The present study aimed to evaluate the histological changes of the testis in an irradiated
rat under the effect of oestrogen as a radioprotective agent.
Eighty adult male albino rats were used in this work and divided into 8 equal groups.
Group I was considered as a control, group II was exposed to gamma radiation at a dose rate 6
Gy, group III was intramuscularly injected with a single dose of oestrogen (0.166 mg / 100 g
b.w.), group IV was injected with fractionated doses of oestrogen (0.09 mg/ 100 g b.w.) daily
for 7 days, group V & VI were injected with the same single and fractionated doses 10 & 5 days
pre-irradiation respectively, group VII & VIII were injected with the same single and
fractionated doses 7 & 5 days post-irradiation respectively.
Twenty-one days post-irradiation and treatment, the animals were sacrificed, the testis was
isolated and paraffin sections were prepared and stained by haematoxylin and eosin to study the
general microscopic structure as well as measurement of thickness of germinal epithelium and
diameter of seminiferous tubules. The obtained data were statistically analyzed by Student's t-
The irradiated testis showed vacuolization and necrosis of spermatogenic cells, damage of
Sertoli cells, rare sperms and reduction of, the germinal epithelium thickness and the diameter
of seminiferous tubules in comparison with control group.
With injection of both doses of oestrogen or pre-irradiation injection, the testis was nearly
similar to normal pattern. On the other hand, with post-irradiation injection, the testis was nearly
similar to irradiation pattern.
It was concluded that pre-irradiation injection of single or fractionated doses of oestrogen
could result in improving the effect on the structural changes of testis in the irradiated rat.


Testicular tissue represents one of the most
regulates the development and function of
radiosensitive body components in animals
the male reproductive system and promotes
(Meistrich et al., 1978). Its importance as a
subject of study on the cell and tissue levels
(Ganong, 1979). Other investigators have
comes from this activity in cell proliferation
reported a decrease in the levels of serum
and differentiation, as well as its functional
testosterone (Hall and Gones, 1975).
importance in reprod-uction. The effect of
Radiation causes reduction of tubule
gamma radiation on the function of gonads
diameter and decrease or loss of germ cells
revealed complete sterility after using
in various developing stages, especially
suitable doses of radiation (Ivanova and
spermatogenic elements (Zhang, at el.,
Maleeva, 1980). Radiation induces damage
2000). So, it can irreversibly damage
to Leydig cells which are responsible for
spermatogenesis in oncological patients
the synthesis and secretion of androgen that
(Kamischke, et al., 2003). The marked

Full Paper (vol.21 paper# 4)

Studying the Risks of Cotton Cooking Oil Fumes on the Lung of Rats and the Protective Role of Alphatocopherol (Vitamin E) The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 21: 53 ­ 65 December 2005
I.S.S.N: 12084

2002 1687
Studying the Risks of Cotton Cooking Oil Fumes on the Lung and Liver of
Rats and the Protective Role of (Vitamin E Alphatocopherol )

Fahmy GAD GAD ELsaid
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.


Fumes emitted from edible vegetable cooking oils during stir- and deep-frying are
important contributors to indoor air pollution. Indoor air pollution may be increase the lung and
liver cancer in Egypt in 2005. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the
effects of Egyptian cotton cooking oil fumes on rats. The exposed rats for 30 and 60 days to
cotton oil fumes showed a significant increase in the lung and liver malondialdehyde levels
which accompanied with a significant decrease in glutathione content. Also, there was a
significant decrease in lung and liver superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione s-transferase
activities. As well as, there was a significant decrease in serum amino acids levels, lung and
liver nucleic acids and total proteins. These changes were obviously after 60 days than that of
30 days of exposure. DNA change was clear in the lungs of rats after cotton oil fumes exposed
as showed by the differential display technique, P53 primer which used to study the expression
of the p35 gene as well as to confirm and amplify these changes after oil fumes exposure. Band
with different molecular weights were observed after the exposure and in protected groups but
not presented in the control. More characterization for the changes had been carried out in the
animal on two levels, one the DNA using RAPD-PCR and the other on the protein level using
SDS-PAGE techniques. Also, vitamin E ameliorates these abnormalities to extent limit in all
cases in this work.

Keywords: cooking oil fumes, cotton oil, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),
superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione s-transferase (GST),
glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (MDA), amino and nucleic acids, SDS-
PAGE, RAPD-PCR, Differential Display, Vitamin E, rat, lung , liver.


Fumes from cooking oils were found
(Cohen and Pope 1995, and Seaton et al.,
to be mutagenic and several polycyclic
1995). Moreover, B[a]P has been identified
aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), (benzo (a)
in urban air particulates, cigarette smoke,
pyrene (B (a) P) , benz (a) anthracene (B
and cooking oil fumes (COF) (Li et al,,
(a)A), and dibenz (a,h) anthracene (DB
1994,Witschi et al., 1997, and Kuo et al.
(ah)A) (Wu et al.,1998), and nitrogen
1998), and it increases the incidence of lung
polyaromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHS) were
tumor in rodents (Iwagawa et al., 1989).
identified (Tsai and Huang 1993).These
COF are generated not only during
PAHs such as oil fumes obtained in experi-
Chinese-style cooking but also during
mental settings and in air samples from
Western-style deep-frying (Coggon et al.,
kitchens (Li et al., 1994, Mumford et al.,
1986), and the Egyptian­style cooking also
1995 and Chaing et al., 1997).However,
generates COF. The biological effects of
exposure to air pollutants is associated with
COF on human lung epithelial CL3 cells,
adverse effects on respiratory health, such
namely is the inhibition of cell growth and
as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,
induction of oxidative stress (Wu et al.,
exacerbation of asthma, and lung cancer
1999 and Tunga et al., 2001). So, daily

Full Paper (vol.21 paper# 5)

Abnormalities in Plasma Concentration of Lipids and Fibrinogen of Egyptian Microalbuminuric NIDDM Type 2 Diabetic Patients The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 21: 66 ­81 December 2005
I.S.S.N: 12084

2002 1687

Abnormalities in Plasma Concentration of Lipids and Fibrinogen of
Egyptian Microalbuminuric NIDDM Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Ghada Z A Soliman
Lecturer of Biochemistry, National Nutrition Institute, Cairo, Egypt


Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is associated with derangements in the serum levels of
several biochemical parameters. Fibrinogen is a strong cardiovascular risk factor in the general
population, and increased fibrinogen plasma concentrations have been reported in type 2
diabetic patients.
Purpose: To assess fibrinogen, lipids and lipoprotein composition and the relationship
between fibrinogen and lipoprotein abnormalities and urinary albumin excretion (UAER) in
type 2 diabetic patients.
Study Design: 48 control persons (24 male, 24 female), 96 diabetic patients (48 male: 24
normoalbuminuric, 24 microalbuminuric, 48 female: 24 normoalbuminuric, 24
microalbuminuric). They were divided into 9 groups. All groups were matched for age, sex,
BMI. The diabetic patients were matched with the duration of diabetes. Diabetic patients were
classified according to their level of urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) into
normoalbuminuric (<20 µg/min), microalbuminuric (20-200 µg/min). Diabetic patients with
other complications were excluded.
Materials and Methods: Blood and urine samples were collected from the diabetic patients
and non-diabetic healthy controls. Glucose, HbA1C, Hb, creatinine, fibrinogen, urinary albumin
excretion rate, cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, Ch/HDL-C, HDL-C/LDL-C, LDL-
C/HDL-C, triacylglycerol and phosphlipids were determined.
Results and Discussion: A significant elevation of glucose, HbA1C, fibrinogen, urinary albumin
excretion rate, cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C, Ch/HDL-C HDL-C/LDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C,
triacylglycerol and phosphlipids and a significant decrease in HDL-C were obsereved in the
diabetic groups in comparison with control group and the same was found for microalbuminuric
vs normoalbuminuric diabetic groups.
Conclusion: Albuminuria is the best predictor of fibrinogen plasma levels in type 2
diabetic patients. Plasma fibrinogen level is increased in type 2 normoalbuminuric diabetic
patients (without detectable micro- and macrovascular complications), which indicate that
hyperfibrinogenemia may precede the onset of clinical vascular complications and might
therefore contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: type II diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), lipids, diabetes mellitus, fibrinogen,
hĉmoglobin (Hb), glycosylated hĉmoglobin (HbA1C)


It is well established that non-insulin-
Herman et al. (1998), found that among
dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM, is
people with previously diagnosed diabetes,
associated with increased morbidity and
mean glycosylated hĉmoglobin (HbA1C)
mortality compared with the general popul-
was 9.0%; Forty-two per cent had
ation. The microvascular and neuropathic
retinopathy; 21% had albuminuria, and
complications of diabetes are a major
22% are neuropathy. During the past 20
clinical and public health problem in Egypt
years, major socio-demographic changes
(Herman et al., 1998). In a cross-sectional,
have occurred in the Eastern Mediterranean
population-based survey done in Egypt,
Region (WHO, 1993) associated with

Full Paper (vol.21 paper# 6)

Safety And Efficacy Of Proseal Laryngeal Mask Airway Versus Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway And Endo Tracheal Tube During Electi The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 21: 82 ­ 94 December 2005
I.S.S.N: 12084

2002 1687

Safety And Efficacy Of Proseal Laryngeal Mask Airway Versus
Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway And Endo Tracheal Tube During
Elective surgery

Soad A. Mansour , Wafaa G.Ahmed , Kawthar A. Azzam ,Tarek M. EL said
Department of Anaesthesia , Faculty Of Medicine For Girls-AL-Azhar University.


The present study was performed to compare safety , efficacy of Proseal Laryngeal Mask
Airway (PLMA), classic Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and cuffed Endo Tracheal Tube (ETT)
as a ventilatory device during controlled positive pressure ventilation and airway management ,
Haemodynamic response to insertion and removal, gastric tube insertion through either device,
air leak detection and assessment of position by fiberoptic bronchoscope . Forty five ASA I or II
patients aged between 18-55 years old , were divided equally into three groups of fifteen
patients each , and airway management either through PLMA(groupI),classic LMA
(groupII)and ETT (group III) . All patients were premedicated by zantac hydrochloride 150 mg
orally at mid night and two hours before the operation ­ Anaesthesia was induced with fentanyl
2 ug/kg and propofol 2.5 mg /kg and maintenance was with a mixture of 50% N2O , 50% O2
and isoflurane 1 - 1.5 % and rocuronium 0.5 mg /kg followed by continous infusion of
rocuronium 0.3-0.6 mg/kg/hr A proper size PLMA , classic LMA or ETT was selected
oxygenation and ventilation were optimal in 100% in group I and III while in group II 80%
optimal and suboptimal in 13.3% and failed in 6.7 % . Haemodynamic parameters showed that
significantly increase in HR and MAP in the three studied groups especially at insertion and
removal of the airway device with statisticaly significant difference between group I,II in
comparison to group III, comparison of gastric tube insertion showed that positive insertion
was 86.7% in group I and in 46.7% in group II, while in group III positive insertion was 100%
air leak was detected by epigastric auscultation which signified lower leakage in PLMA group
than LMA group . Position assessment by fiberoptic bronchoscope in PLMA group was grade 4
in 5 patients , grade 3 in 5 patients , grade2 in 4 patients and grade 1 in 1 patient while in LMA
group it was grade 4 in 7 patients , grade 3 in 6 patients , grade 2 in 2 patients and grade 1 in no
patient In conclusion :- PLMA and classic LMA could be better choices as ventilatory device in
hypertensive and coronary artery disease patients .


The Proseal Laryngeal Mask Airway
Laryngeal cuff of the (PLMA) is made of
(PLMA) is a new and advanced LMA
softer silicone than that of the classic
airway that may be used for the same
(LMA) and covers the posterior aspect of
indication as the original classic (LMA))(1)
the bowl of the mask , when inflated , this
. The (PLMA) was described by Brain in
cuff presses the device forwards and is
2001 . the airway tube is wire ­reinforced ,
designed to improve the seal of the
like aflexible (LMA) , there is an additional
Larynx(1)The (PLMA) is a laryngeal mask
drain tube placed laterally to the airway
device with a modified cuff and drainage
tube, the drain tube passes lateral then
tube forms a more effective seal than the
through the mask part of the device and
classic (LMA) and isolates the respiratory
exits at the distal tip of the Laryngeal
tract from gastrointestinal tract when
cuff.(2)The drain tube is designed to allow
correctly positioned (3), Laparoscopic
insertion of gastric tube and to vent gas or
procedures are the most recent commonly
liquid from the upper eosophagus. The
performed general surgical procedures.

Full Paper (vol.21 paper# 7)

Hypoglycemic And Hyperinsulinemic Effects Of Ferula Assafoetida On Diabetic Male Albino Rats The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 21: 95 ­ 108 December 2005
I.S.S.N: 12084

2002 1687

Hypoglycemic And Hyperinsulinemic Effects Of Ferula Assafoetida
On Diabetic Male Albino Rats

Eman G. E. Helal, Ashraf M. Mostafa*, Amany F. MhMood ***
and Anwaar A. Kahwash

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Department Histology *, Faculty of
Medicine Al-Azhar University. ** , Nutrition and Food Science Department, Faculty
of Home Economic , Jeddah, K.S.A.


In the current study, thirty adult male albino rats were used to investigate the effect of
Ferula assafoetida on carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetes. Rats were divided
into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic Ferula assafoetida treated
groups. After thirty days of treatment five rats of each group were sacrificed and the others were
left without any additional treatment for another 15 days (recovery period) then were sacrificed.
Body weight, blood glucose, serum insulin and liver glycogen content levels were determined
for each rat at the end of each period. It was noticed that Ferula assafoetida treatment led to a
significant improve in hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, decreased liver glycogen and increased
percentage of body weight change caused by alloxan. And this improvement was also seen after
the recovery period.
Ferula assafoetida treatment led also to marked improvement in the histopathological
degenerative changes in the cells of islets of Langerhans caused by alloxan after both the
treated and recovery periods.


Diabetes is a common disease, with
kinds of herbs, belonging to various
major global public health consequences
families to be used in the treatment of
(Williams and Pickup, 1999). The diabetic
diabetes mellitus (Eskander and Won Jun,
patients needed alternative therapies to
control all of the pathological aspects of
diabetes and the high cost and poor
(Umbellifervae), Devil's drug is native to
availability of current therapies in many
Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. In the 7th
rural populations, particularly in developing
century B. C., Charak Samita, a Hindu
countries (Marles and Farnsworth, 1995).
medical treatise, proclaimed assafoetida the
The traditional antidiabetic plants might
best remedy for clearing gas and bloating.
provide this useful source of new oral
The asafetida's Oleo-gum-resin are the main
hypoglycemic compounds.
parts used, where it contains 6.17% volatile
Medicinal plants continue to provide
oil, as well as resin and gum. The volatile
valuable therapeutic agents, both in modern
oil contains disulphides, which have an
medicine and in traditional system. A wide
expectorant action. The oil also settles the
variety of the traditional herbal remedies
digestion. Assafoetida is taken for
are used by diabetic patients, especially in
bronchitis, bronchial asthma, who-ping
the third world countries(Day, 1998 & Gray
cough and other chest problems. It also
and Flatt, 1998) and may, therefore,
lowers blood pressure (Chevallier, 1996).
represent new avenues in the search for
Sulfur compounds in the oil may protect
alternative hypoglycemic drugs. The folk
against fat-induced hyperlipidemia (Duke,
medicine in Kuwait has described several

Full Paper (vol.21 paper# 8)

Assessment of Some Biochemical Parameters for Early Detection of Protein Energy Malnutrition The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 21: 109 ­ 115 December 2005
I.S.S.N: 12084

2002 1687

Assessment of Some Biochemical Parameters for Early Detection of Protein
Energy Malnutrition

Mohsen M. Deeb, Mostafa M. EShakankery* ,Nagwa Mohamed **and
Pediatric department, Menoufiya University, Medical Biochemistry Departement ,El-Minia
Universit y*. Childhandicapped Center, AlAzhar University**and Biochemistry
Department,National NutritionInstitute***


Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) is a common health problem in developing countries.
The mild form of PEM results in growth retardation while severe forms result in the syndromes
of marasmus and kwashiorkor. Mild PEM was described as a condition in which specific or ,
non specific clinical signs , as well as non specific laboratory indices are present without any of
the classical manifestations of nutritional deficiency.
Objective of this work was to assess serum transferrin and fibronectin as a biochemical
markers for early detection of PEM. We studied 42 children: 30 patients had PEM (15 cases
were mild to moderate PEM and 15 cases were severe PEM) with their age ranged between 4-36
months and the remaining 12 children were age and sex matched healthy children as controls.
All studied children were subjected to: full history taking, thorough clinical examination
including anthropometric measurements [weight, hight,body mass,index (BMI), and mid arm
circumference (MAC)] as well as estimation of serum albumin, serum transferrin, fibronectin,
Hb and urine analysis. Results revealed significant reduction in all anthropometric
measurements in both mild to moderate and severe PEM patients as compared to control group .
Serum albumin was significantly lowered in severe PEM as compared to control and still within
normal level in mild to moderate PEM patients.
Serum transferrin and fibronectin were significantly lowered in mild to moderate PEM as
compared to controls and more reduction in severe form of PEM as compared to controls .
Serum fibronectin and transferrin correlated positively with BMI (P <0.05) and serum albumin
(P <0.001) in both mild to moderate and severe PEM . In conclusion serum fibronectin and
transferrin are markedly reduced in patients with mild to moderate PEM and correlated
positively with BMI and serum albumin. This represents an evidence for the role of serum
fibronectin and transferrin as biochemical markers for early detection of PEM.


PEM is a common health problem in
was traditionally measured to estimate the
developing countries (Tatli et al, 2000 ).
nutritional status but it has the disadva-
The major clinical syndromes of severe
ntages of having a long half-life (18-20
PEM are marasmus, kwashiorkor (KWO)
days) (Behar, 1981.) So, Albumin should
and marasmic KWO, while mild form
not be used to diagnose either recent or
results in growth retardation (Manary, et al.,
mild to moderate degree of PEM. Its major
1999,and Barltrop ,1992.). The mild form
role is in the assessment of the severity of
of PEM was described as a condition in
chronic malnutrition and in estimating
which non specific clinical signs, or
prognosis, but here its clinical use is limited
specific, as well as non specific laboratory
(Hassanein et al., 1998., Benjamin, 1989.
indices, are present without any of the
and Veldee, 2001.) Transferrin is a major
classical manifestations of nutritional
transport protein for iron and is the second
deficiency ( Dahan et al., 1985.) Albumin
most investigated protein marker in

Full Paper (vol.21 paper# 9)

Comparison Of Chemical And Mineral Content Of Milk From Human, Cow, Buffalo, Camel And Goat In Egypt The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 21: 116 ­ 130 December 2005
I.S.S.N: 12084

2002 1687

Comparison Of Chemical And Mineral Content Of Milk From
Human, Cow, Buffalo, Camel And Goat In Egypt.

Ghada Z A Soliman
Lecturer of Biochemistry, Biochemistry Department, National Nutrition Institute, Cairo


Milk is an important food; it is considered as a good source of Ca. Comparison studies of
chemical and mineral contents of milk from human, cow, buffalo, camel and goat in Egypt are
rare, so we determine chemical and mineral composition cows; camels; buffalo and goats milk
in Egypt and to compare with the human milk since such comparisons are rare in Egypt. There
are several studies dealing with the chemical composition of milk, but they are foreign, non-
Egyptian. It is known that changing of environment has a significant effect on natural
physiological function of both human and animals, so it was very important to made such study
on Egyptian environment (ecology), hoping to give understanding and explain some of the
malnutrition problems in Egypt. Three hundred and two milk samples were obtained at random
from: cows; camels; buffalo and goats (n: 44, 108, 40, 40 respectively), while human milk was
obtained from healthy lactating women (n: 70, after 3 rd month of lactation). Chemical
constituents as protein, fat, carbohydrates, moisture, ash and lactose were determined. Mineral
contents as calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg),
copper (Cu), phosphorous (P) and manganese (Mn) were measured in the ash. Human milk
contains the lowest protein and ash content. Buffalo milk has the highest fat and total solids
content. It gives the higher yield of energy. Human milk contains the highest carbohydrates and
lactose content (4.98 gm% carbohydrates, of which 4.70 are lactose, i.e. it represent 94.46 %).
Human milk contains the lowest concentration of Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Na, K and Mg. Ca: P ratio of
human milk is higher (2.32 vs 1.18-1.47) than other species. Mn content of human milk is
higher (human milk contains 6.5 times camel and cow milk and 24.14 times as goat milk).
Buffalo milk has the highest Ca, P and Mg content. Camel milk has the highest Fe, Zn, Na and
Cu content. Goat milk has the highest K content. Chemical and mineral content of the 5 studied
species varied widely. Camel, buffalo, cow and goat milk cannot replace human milk but it may
complement it.

Key words:
goat, cow, human, camel, buffalo, mineral composition, chemical composition.


Milk is an excellent source of most
in fat and total solids, which gives it a rich
essential minerals for human. It contains
flavor. Many people prefer it than cow's
mostly calcium, phosphorus and constitutes
milk. In Egypt, for example, the severe
the most important source of bioavailable
mortality rate among buffalo calves is due
calcium in our diet (ICAR, 1981). Milk and
in part to the sale of buffalo milk, which is
dairy products are part of a healthy diet.
in high demand, thus depriving calves of
The composition of the milk of various
proper nourishment. The buffaloes of Egypt
animal species differs, but in every case it
are used mainly for milk production.
has a high priority in human nutrition.
Buffalo milk is pure white because it
More than 5% of the world's milk
contains no carotene since buffalo have
comes from buffaloes. Over 95% of the
already processed the carotene into vitamin
world buffalo milk is produced in Asia
A. Buffalo milk is also very thick.
(Charan, 1994). Buffalo milk is used in
The value of goat milk in human
much the same way as cow's milk. It is high
nutrition has so far received very little

Full Paper (vol.21 paper# 10)

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphism in Egyptian Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 21: 131 ­ 138 December 2005
I.S.S.N: 12084
200 ­
2 1687

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphism in Egyptian Patients
with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

El-Shafeey M.M., El-Shayeb M., Othman E. and Elfawy N
Allergy and Immunology Department of Internal Medicine in Ain Shams University Hospital,
Cairo, Egypt.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) shows various clinical manifestations with various
immunological abnormalities. The development of lupus nephritis and vasculitis is common in
patients with SLE. As angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) has been reported to be
associated with various immunological phenomena, we investigated the correlation between
insertion(I) / deletion(D) polymorphism of the ACE gene and SLE. Fifty Egyptian patients with
SLE and thirty healthy control persons were involved in this study. ACE gene was detected by
the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
In SLE patients, there is a significant difference when comparing DD and II genotypes
(P<0.05),being higher in the DD genotype. And a highly significant difference when comparing
ID and II genotypes (P=0.001), being much higher in ID genotype than II genotype. According
to vasculitis, there is a significant relationship between vasculitis and patients genotypes when
comparing ID genotype with both II and DD genotypes (P<0.05), being highest in ID genotype.
There is a significant relationship found when comparing ID genotype with both II and DD
genotypes, being highest in ID genotype in patients with score 21. These results suggest that
the ACE genotype could be associated with SLE.

SLE is an autoimmune disorder of
component to disease development and/or
unknown etiology, which is known to occur
progression (Schelling et al., 1999).
in genetically susceptible patients influe-
Although contemporary immunos-
nced by environmental and hormonal
uppressive treatments may counteract
factors (Uhm et al., 2002). SLE has a strong
immune mechanisms involved in the
genetic component: 4% of cases are familial
pathogenesis of nephritis, an increasing
(Blakemore et al., 1994), increased concor-
fraction of glomeruli, especially those that
dance of SLE among monozygotic versus
have undergone adaptive hypertrophy, may
dizygotic twins (Fronek et al., 1990), abn-
continue to undergo progressive sclerosis
ormal T cell suppressor function in healthy
even after nephritis has become quiescent
relatives of SLE patients with increased
(Tassiulas et al., 1998). This suggests that
antibody production (Fronek et al., 1990),
in addition to immune mechanisms, non-
antinuclear and other autoan-tibodies
immune pathogenic mecha-nisms such as
(Hahn, 1998) and increased prevalence of
glomerular hyperperfusion, intra-glome-
other connective tissue diseases, compared
rular and systemic hypertension, and
with relatives of matched controls
proteinuria may play a role in the
(Blakemore et al., 1994), and associations
progression of the renal disease (Davis et
with several major histocompatibility
al., 1996). Thus, in addition to genes that
complex (MHC) loci (Fronek et al., 1990).
may be implicated in the dysregulation of
The development of lupus nephritis is
immune mechanisms in SLE, such as Fc,
not only common, but is associated with
other genes may also influence the severity
and response to treatment of lupus nephritis
(Cervera et al., 1999). Both SLE and end-
(Kono & Theofilopoulos, 1996). Tassiulas
stage renal disease (ESRD) show clear
et al. (1998), hypothesized that genes of the
RAS may be among such candidate genes.

Full Paper (vol.21 paper# 11)

Plasma Histamine And Serotonin Levels In Children With Nephrotic Syndrome And Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 21: 139 ­ 144 December 2005
I.S.S.N: 12084

2002 1687

Plasma Histamine And Serotonin Levels In Children With Nephrotic
Syndrome And Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis

Nagwa Mohamed and Talaat El sayed*
Child handicapped Center and *Faculty of Science AlAzhar University.


Plasma histamine and serotonin concentrations were measured using fluorimeteric assay in
40 children with renal diseases. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (15) focal segmental
glomerulosclerosis(10) and acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis(15) to determine the
relation between plasma levels of histamine and serotonin and these various types of renal
diseases in children. Plasma histamine level was significantly increased in group of children
with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Plasma serotonin levels were significantly
increased in all 3 groups of patient, when compared with those of controls. Raised plasma
histamine in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis group may be evidence of the acute
immunological inflammation and defective renal excretion due to mild renal impairment in
these children. Raised plasma serotonin in all 3 groups of patients may be due to diminished
uptake and release of serotonin from platelets in children with minimal change nephrotic
syndrome and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and due to defective renal execretion in
children with acute poststreptococcal glomerulo-nephritis.


Histamine plays an important role in
(Malyszko et al, 1996). (Parbtani et al.,
the regulation of the functions and changes
which result from inflammation and
differences between free plasma serotonin
trauma. It is one of the main constituents of
in normal individuals and patients with
tissue mast cells (Range and Dale ,1993.)
blood basophils (Hartman et al,1961) and it
(MCNS), and acute poststreptococcal
is also present in gastric mucosa (Kiahlson ,
glomerulonephritis (APSGN), but signifi-
et al.,1964), vascular endoth-elial and
cant increase in cases of focal segmental
smooth muscle cells (Abboud et al ,1982.
glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and systemic
and Hollis et al., 1983) The kidney forms
lupus erythmatosjs (SLE) was found. Little
and stores histamine. but very little is
is known about the relation between the
known about the role of histamine in renal
plasma histamine and serotonin levels and
pathophysiology (Gill et al , 1991). Markle
renal diseases in children. In the present
et al.,(1986) demonstrated increased renal
study we determine the plasma histamine
histamine content in experimental diabetes
and serotonin levels in children with
with nephropathy. In adults impaired
various renal diseases (MCNS, FSGS and
clearance of injected labelled histamine has
APSGN), and evaluated a curative' relation
been reported in chronic renal failure (CRF)
between these renal diseases and plasma
(Beal and Vavarsdal , 1959).
levels of histamine and sterotonin.
Serotonin is a vasoactive amine,

ninety% of the body's stores of serotonin
Subjects And Methods
are found in gastrointestinal tract, while the

remainder is divided between the central
Forty children with renal diseases
nervous system and platelets (Aberg and
(chronic illness considered as handicapped
Engstron , 1990 ). It was found that there is
had been studied in Menoufiya and Al
a Significant increase in plasma serotonin
Azhar, universities, hospitals in the
in all types of nephrotic syndrome
following three clinical groups:

Full Paper (vol.21 paper# 12)

Effect of Curcumin, Mixture of Curcumin and Piperine and Curcum (Turmeric) on Lipid Profile of Normal and Hyperlipidemic Rats The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 21: 145 ­ 161 December 2005
I.S.S.N: 12084

2002 1687

Effect of Curcumin, Mixture of Curcumin and Piperine and Curcum
(Turmeric) on Lipid Profile of Normal and Hyperlipidemic Rats

GHADA, Z. A. Soliman

Lecturer of Biochemistry, Biochemistry Department, National
Nutrition Institute, Cairo


Curcumin is a polyphenolic, yellow pigment obtained from rhizomes of Curcuma longa
(curcum), used as a spice and food colouring. The extracts have several pharmacological effects.
We evaluated the effect of curcum, curcumin, and mixture of curcumin and piperine on plasma
lipids in normal and hypercholesterolemic rats. A total of 270 rats, divided into 27 groups, were
used. G1, G11: control, G2-G11: normal rats fed control diet supplemented with different levels
of curcumin and curcum (G2-G6: 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% respectively, G7-G11:
1.67%, 4.167%, 8.34%, 16.67%, and 33.34). G12-G26: at first fed control diet supplemented
with 2% cholesterol then G13-17, 21-25 fed a control diet supplemented with different levels of
curcumin, and curcum [the same levels as G2-G11; G18-20 fed control diet supplemented with
mixture of curcumin (0.1, 0.25, 0.5%) and piperine (20 mg/kg BW)], G12 was sacrificed before
addition of studied materials, G26 were fed control diet. Lipid profile, triacylglycerol and
phospholipids of plasma and organs as liver and heart were measured. Serum cholesterol (total,
LDL-C, VLDL-C), triacylglycerol and phospholipids contents were elevated in cholesterol-fed
rats, while HDL-C were decreased. Curcum, curcumin have hypocholesterolemic effect on both
normal and hypercholesterolemic rats being more effective in hypercholesterolemic rats.
Curcumin reduces cholesterol by interfering with intestinal cholesterol uptake, increasing the
conversion of cholesterol into bile acids and increasing the excretion of bile acids. Using
curcumin+piperine is better than using curcumin alone. All doses had the same effect, but using
the lower level (0.5%) is better than using 2.0% level. Liver cholesterol, triacylglycerol and
phospholipids contents and cardiac cholesterol were elevated in hypercholesterolemic
conditions. Dietary curcumin showed a distinct tendency to counter these changes. Piperine was
added to curcumin to enhance its bioavailabilty through increasing curcumin absorption and
reducing its metabolism in liver. The use of curcum, curcumin, and mixture of curcumin and
piperine may be useful in the management of cardiovascular disease. Using the lower level
(0.5%) is better than using 2.0%. Piperine enhances the bioavailabilty of curcumin.

Keywords: Curcuma longa L.; Atherosclerosis; Antioxidant, Cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C,
VLDL-C, Triacylglycerol, Phospholipids, Curcumin, Piperine, Hypercholesterolemia,
Liver, Heart


Curcuma longa L. plant (known as
ground Turmeric. Ground Turmeric is used
curcum hence the name Curcuma, turmeric)
worldwide as the main ingredient in curry,
is a member of the Curcuma botanical
the spice, and as a source for curcumin or
group, which is part of the ginger family of
curcuminoids. Curcum is a well-known
herbs, Zingiberaceae. It is widely cultivated
spice and food colorant commonly
in tropical regions of Asian countries
consumed in different parts of the world.
including India. The root and rhizome
Recently, much attention has been focused
(underground stem) of the Curcuma longa
on the biological and medicinal properties
L. plant is crushed and powdered into
of curcumin. Curcumin, a group of polyp-

Full Paper (vol.21 paper# 13)

A Study of low achievement on Third Grade primary School Failed Students in Minoufiya The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 21: 162 ­ 175 December 2005
I.S.S.N: 12084

2002 1687

A Study of low achievement on Third Grade primary School Failed
Students in Minoufiya

Mohamed Elwan1, Nagwa Mohamed2 & Mohamed Shebl3
Departments of Neuopshychiatry1, Public Heatlth3, Menoufiya Faculty of Medicine &
Child handicapped Center, AlAzhar University2


This study was conducted on 374 students who constituted about one fourth of third grade
primary school failed students in whole Minoufiya governorate & 100 never failed students
from the same classes as a control group. Semi structured psychiatric interview and thorough,
neurological examination, beside sociodemographic data sheet & psychometric assessment
using children depressive inventory children's phobia scale and Anxiety scale for children, child
behavior check list & IQ assessment. 45.9% of Failed students were founded to have psychiatric
disorders in comparison to 27% of the control group. 9.1% of the repeaters were founded to be
mentaly retarded.& 34.3% of them were of border line IQ compared to 2% & 20% of the
control group respectively. Epilepsy was present among 2.1% of failed students compared to
1% of the control group. The failed group were founded to be significantly different from
control group as regard parental education, family size, make truancy from school. Abnormal
behavior problems were more prevalent among failed students than control group. Learning
problems as reading, writing & mathematics problems were founded to be more prevalent
among failed students. No difference of significant value was detected between failed males &
females students regarding the studied items, except for conduct disorder and (Aggressive,
Delinquent, Hyperactive disorders "ADHD").


Primary education is the largest sub-
Brier , (1995) concluded that one of
sector of any education system and offers
the most frequent triggers to clinical
the unique opportunity to contribute to the
referral for school age is failure to achieve
transformation of societies through educa-
academically at expected grade level.
tion of the young, world Education Forum
Okasha et al., (1988) found that
(2000). Primary schools is considered the
psychiatric and behavioral disorders are
corner stone, for the psychological and
present in 52% of under achieved students.
social development for children.Greenspan.
Schoolastic achievement and educataional
& Curry (1989) reported that the adjust-
progress are greatly affected by the surrou-
ment of the child to school life during the
nding environment, home atmosphere and
first three or four grades gives an idea about
family condition. Sameroff, (1997).
his future attitude toward study and
Muijs, (1997) reported that there is a
significant contribution of parental social
Olwues , (1994) suggested that pare-
economic state to children's achieve-ment.
nts, teachers, peers and school enviro-
Campbell, (1997) concluded that academic
nment, have a significant role in fostering
achievement, school climate and teachers
optimal development of self and in restruc-
are all potentially interacting.
turing of the social environment of children.
Third grade is the First grade in
The problem of under achievement or
primary education in which students are
"school failure" has different aspects.
exposed to organized exam allover the
Psychosocial and learning factors are
whole governorate, and in which some
considered the most important of them.
students may fail & repeat the grade,

Full Paper (vol.21 paper# 14)

Evoked Alterations In Some Biochemical Parameters And Protein Electrophoretic Pattern Of Some Tissues Of Broiler Chicken The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 21:176 ­ 190 December 2005
I.S.S.N: 12084

2002 1687

Evoked Alterations In Some Biochemical Parameters And Protein
Electrophoretic Pattern Of Some Tissues Of Broiler Chicken
Treated With Coumarin

Shadia, A. Radwan
Department of Biology & Geology, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University


Coumarin compounds are used as dormant substances in agriculture. Physiologically, they
are highly active, for example, act as inhibitor of growth of microorganisms. Moreover,
coumarin is a maturally occuring substance most frequently used as a fragrance enhancer (in
cosmetics, perfumes and soap) and stabilizer. In this study, chemical analysis of chicken tissues
(brain, liver and kidney) as lipid constituents, cholesterol, liver, glycogen, glutathione, lipid per
oxidase and protein electrophoresis (fractions) were tested after intermuscular (i.m.) injection
with doses of 100mg/kg.b.wt. and 200mg/kg.b.wt. of coumarin for 10 days (every other day).
The present study revealed that coumarin at a dose of 100mg/kg.b.wt. induced insignificant
changes in the total lipid (T.L) of brain, liver and kidney tissues of broiler chicken. Otherwise,
the high dose of coumarin (200 mg/ kg.b.wt.) caused a significant decrease in the T.L. of brain
(P < 0.01) tissues, while insignificant change of kidney T.L. was recorded at a dose of 200
mg/kg.b.wt.. of coumarin. Also, insignificant changes of triglycerides (T.G.) and cholesterol
(Chol.) content of brain, liver and kidney tissues of chicken group (G2) treated with coumarin
(100mg/kg) were demonstrated. While, high dose (200 mg/kg coumarin) resulted in a
significant decrease in the T.G. and Chol. of brain (P < 0.001 & P < 0.01 respectively) and liver
(P < 0.001 & P < 0.001), the same dose showed insignificant changes of kidney T.G. an Chol.
Administration of coumarin (100mg/kg. G2) showed insignificant changes in glutathione
content (GSH) of liver and kidney tissues, while significant decrease (P < 0.01) of brain GSH
content was recorded compared with the control group. Besides, a dose of 100mg/kg.coumarin
caused insignificant changes in lipid peroxides (TABrs) of brain and kidney tissues of chicken
and significant increase (P < 0.001) of (TABrs) content of liver tissue. High dose of coumarin
(200mg./kg. G3) showed significant increase of TABrs content of brain, liver, and kidney
tissues (P < 0.01, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001 respectively) of broiler chicken compared with the
control group. Both doses of administered coumarin (G2 & G3) caused significant decrease (P
< 0.001) in the liver glycogen content. The present data revealed that coumarin caused
qualitative and quantitative changes in tissues (brain, liver and kidney) protein fractionation
pattern of chicken compared with that of controls. Sixteen bands were separated using
polycrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) ­ as protein fractions in both the control and
coumarin treated groups. The changes (decrease or increase) in particular protein fractions may
be related to the effect of xenobiotic (coumarin) on the specific genes encoding for these
fractions. Thus, this work revealed that inspite of the benefit of coumarin substance, the
xenobiotic effect and signs of intoxications were attained spacially at high doses of treatment.

Key words :
Coumarin, Biochemistry, Protein electrophoretic pattern, Brain, Liver, Kidney,
Broiler chicken.


Coumarin compounds are occur
substance in agriculture (inhibited seed
naturally in the diets (Geoger and
germination) and also, inhibit the growth of
Anderson, 1991) and used as dormant
microorganisms (Mohanty & Sahoo, 1992).

Full Paper (vol.21 paper# 15)

2'-Deoxycytidine As A Potential Biomarker For Detection Of The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 21: 191 ­ 201 December 2005
I.S.S.N: 12084

2002 1687

2'-Deoxycytidine As A Potential Biomarker For Detection Of
Heptocellular Carcinoma

Wafaa Abdallah Ahmed1, Manar Moneer2, Maha M. Abo-Shady3,
Heba Hosny Mansour4, Nahed Abd-El-Wahab5, Masanori Yoshioka6,
Mahmoud El-Merzabani1*
1Department of Cancer Biology (*Chemotherapy Unit), 2Department of Epidemiology and
Biostatistics, 5Department of Clinical Pathology National Cancer Institute, Cairo University,
Cairo, Egypt. 3Microbiology & Immunology department, Faculty of pharmacy (girls), Al-Azhar
University, 4Health Radiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research
and Technology, (NCRRT), 6Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical
Science, Setsunan University, Osaka, Japan.


2'-deoxycytidine (Dcyd) is one of four major nucleosides found in the
different normal body fluids due to dissolution of dead cells, and is increase in the presence of
malignancy. Previous studies proved that it can be used as a marker for bladder cancer and acute
lymphoblastic leukemia. The aim of this study is to assess 2'Dcyd as a possible biological
marker in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Methods: Four groups were evaluated for the level 2'-Dcyd as well as alpha-fetoprotein
(AFP); a control group (n = 20), 20 cases of chronic liver diseases (CLD), 20 cases of hepatitis
C (HCV) 60 cases of HCC.
Results: In the patients with HCC, 2'-Dcyd serum level was 8-fold higher than normal
level. It was 3-fold higher in HCV group. A mild increase was noted in patients with chronic
liver diseases. Levels 0.14 of 2'-Dcyd had a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 90% for
diagnosis of HCC. It also recorded a sensitivity and specificity of 90% for diagnosis of HCV.
Conclusions: For diagnosis of HCC, 2'-Dcyd is no better than AFP, as it is elevated in viral
hepatitis C. A combination of AFP and 2'-Dcyd could provide broader information in diagnosis
and treatment decision.


Worldwide, hepatocellular carcinoma
about 4.7% of chronic liver disease (CLD)
(HCC) is one of the most common malign-
patients (El-Zayadi et al., 2001).
ancies associated with poor prognosis
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is
(Okano et al., 2001). According to recent
the fifth most common malignancy in the
reports, the incidence of HCC has increased
world (El-Serag, 2002) complicating liver
sharply in the last 5-10 years (El-Serag,
cirrhosis in most cases. Its incidence is
2002; Velazquez et al., 2003; Bruix et al.,
increasing worldwide ranging between 3%
2001). In USA, the rate of HCC has
and 9% annually (Velazquez et al., 2003).
increased by 70% over the last two decades.
The epidemiology of HCC is characterized
Registry data in Canada and Western
by marked demographic and geographic
Europe show similar trends (Yu et al.,
variations. It is the third leading cause of
2000). In Egypt, El-Zayadi et al. (2005)
cancer mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa and
reported a rising trend of HCC with
in the Far East and ranks second in China
increasing risk among HCV-infected men
(Shiratori et al., 2001; Bosch et al., 1999;
of older age groups. They recommended;
Schafer & Sorrell, 1999).
careful followed-up of patients and
More than 80% of HCC occurring
screening for early detection of HCC. In
worldwide is felt to be associated with
Egypt, HCC was reported to account for
chronic viral hepatitis (Donald et al., 2000).

Full Paper (vol.21 paper# 16)

University Medical Staff Perception Towards Using Electronic The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 21: 202 ­ 207 December 2005
I.S.S.N: 12084

2002 1687

University Medical Staff Perception Towards Using Electronic
Information Resources

Ayman S. Abdelhady
Public Health Department -Faculty of Medicine , Al-Azhar University
( Assuit branch).


University staff are increasingly expected to use electronic resources of information.
Studies were undertaken to determine the level of use of this type of resources and how
university staff feel about various issues surrounding the use of these resources.
A random sample of one hundred (100) university medical staff (academic and clinical),
Al-Azhar University, completed questionnaire to determine the level of use of various electronic
information resources, if they perceived themselves capable of using these resources and the
various methods employed to acquire skills necessary to use such resources. A wide variety of
views were expressed by the sample staff but the main findings suggested that the most
common electronic resources of information used by the staff were CD-Roms and the internet
as 72% and 63% respectively. Also, the study suggested that faster access to information was
noted as a main advantage of using these resources where detected by 67% of the staff members
and 62% showed that these resources allowed a wider range of information. The study also
showed that the staff had the ability to utilize these resources and obtain information from the
internet whenever they want, in spite of some barriers of use, detected in the study and found to
be facing the staff which were mostly limited time and lack of retrieval skills of information
from these resources. The most popular methods of acquiring the necessary skills to use
electronic resources were via guidance from other peers and courses offered by the university.
Furthermore, researches were necessary to show how best to encourage staff and students to
make effective use of electronic sources that are available.


The last few years have seen a
(Blum, 1986). Furthermore, Brophy (1993)
number of changes in the higher education
stated that users don not often appreciate
sector which have exerted pressure upon
the skills required to search these sources,
the traditional role of the academic library,
the ability to find and retrieve information
changes in teaching and learning methods,
effectively in a transferable skills useful for
towards a greater emphasis on student
future life as well as enabling the positive
centred learning growing number of
and successful use of the electronic
academic publications, inflation in the cost
resources whilst at university.
of printed materials and technological
Dutton (1990) and Blandy & Libutti
developments. This latter change, with
(1995) suggested that the skills required to
increased amount of the available electronic
maximize the potential of electronic
resources, resulted in a demand for
resources are much greater than those
information skills training for both staff and
required for searching printed sources.
students (Bawden, 1990).
Brophy (1993) detailed the advantages
These skills include a knowledge of
of the networking for the user as being, the
the structure of the database and the
information needed can be delivered from
instructions which must be input into the
the most appropriate source to the user, the
computer by the searcher, as well as an
user can re-specify his or her need
understanding of the way in which the
dynamically, the information is obtained
instructions are linked with one another
when it is wanted, electronic information

Full Paper (vol.21 paper# 17)

Studies on some technological factors affecting some veterinary drug residues in buffalo's milk The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 21: 208 ­ 218 December 2005
I.S.S.N: 12084
2002 1687

Studies On Some Technological Factors Affecting Some Veterinary Drug
Residues In Buffalo's Milk

S.A. El-Behairy*; U.M. Radwan**; El-Nawawy, M.A.*** ; and
Mona A.H. Mohamed*
* Food Evaluation and Food Sci. Dept., National Organization for Drug Control and
Research (NODCAR), Giza, Egypt.
** Agric. Dept., Inst. Of Environmental Studies and Research, Ain Shams Univ,
*** Food Sci. Dept., Fac. of Agric., Ain Shams Univ.


In the present study a suggested rapid method for detection of some veterinary drug
residues namely ciprofloxacin, ivermectin and triclabendazole in milk and studied the effect of
some technological factors on the residues of such drugs in buffalo's milk. The suggested
method depends on the extraction of previously mentioned drugs by dialysis through a
membrane in suitable solvent, then measuring the absorbance spectrophotometrically at 278,
243 and 307 n.m. respectively.
Ciprofloxacin is bounded to milk while ivermectin and triclabendazole are completely
dissolved in the cream layer.
Data indicated that these drugs showed high thermal, salt concentration up to 20% and pH
stability. Therefore these veterinary drugs can be a hazard source in milk retentate, concentrated
milk, cheese or other concentrated milk protein products (Entriquez, 2000). Thus application of
HACCP system in milk production and processing must be taken into consideration to ensure a
safe product for the consumer.


Veterinary drug residues in milk and milk
composition, (4) The nutritional demands
products are one of the important hazard
and pharmacology of the consumer, (5) The
sources, which can lead to risk for the
physical-chemical properties of the drug in
human health. The risk of these residues
the matrix, (6) The effect of the
is not of acute toxicity but it can cause
technological processes. Three of the most
chronic toxicity due to the cumulative
important biopharmaceutical factors that
effect (Brumanagh, 2003 and Woodward
influence lacteal drug excretion are protein
2005). The toxicity can cause allergic
binding, ion trapping and lipid solubility
disease or organic disease or in some cases
(Aniello et al., 2002).
cancer (Galer and Monro 1998). The lacteal
In veterinary practice Quinolones
excretion of most veterinary drugs is
group (ciprofloxacin), anthelminthic group
governed by simple, passive diffusion.
(ivermectin) and benzimidazole group
Only few drugs are known to undergo
(triclabendozole) have been recommended
active transport. Not less than 18 factors
for the treatment of several infections.
that affect the rate and the extent of drug
As for ciprofloxacin, it is a major
excretion into milk and subsequent
metabolite of enrofloxacin, and is widely
consumption have been identified (Rossi
used in human medicine. Enrofloxacin and
and Scottwright, 1997). These factors fall
ciprofloxacin are the second generation of
into six general areas: (1) The pharm-
fluoroquinolone with a broad spectrum of
acology of the drug in the animal, (2) The
antibacterial activity. Enrofloxacin is
physiology of the udder, (3) The milk
administered in veterinary medicine by

Full Paper (vol.21 paper# 18)

Dr. Sahar Showky The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 21: 219 ­ 232
December 2005
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 ­
Non Invasive Diagnosis to Predict Adynamic Bone Disease in
Haemodialysed Patients

Yasser Soliman , Ahmed R. Aly , Sahar M. Shawky
Internal Medicine Department, Nephrology Unit Faculty of Medicine
Ain Shams University


Precise evaluation of the underlying type of bone disease in hemodialysed patients
frequently requires bone histomorphometry (including static and kinetic variables after double
tetracycline labeling) which is an invasive and costly method. Due to the prevalence of adynamic
bone disease in hemodialysis patients, different biochemical non invasive markers such as (serum
intact osteocalcin, serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and bone specific alkaline phospha-
tase (bAP) have been shown to be helpful in differentiation between low and high bone turnover.
Our study was conducted to detect the usefulness of measuring serum intact osteocalcin
and its correlation with serum iPTH and bAP to distinguish adynamic bone disease from other
forms of renal osteodystrophy in hemodialysed patients.
The study included 60 patients and 20 normal control subjects, presented at renal dialysis
units, Ain Shams University hospitals.
The hemodialysed patients were classified according to the results serum iPTH and bAP
into two groups :
Group I :
Included 18 patients (30%) with serum iPTH level 150 pg/ml
and serum bAP 27 ng/ml.
Group II :
Included 42 patients (70%) with serum iPTH level > 150 pg/ml
and serum bAP > 27 ng/ml.
The serum level of intact osteocalcin was measured for the control group and for all
hemodialysed patients.
The results revealed highly significant stastical differences in serum level of intact
osteocalcin between all patients group and the control subjects being lower in control group.
Also, the results revelaed that 30% of all patients group had adynamic bone disease and
comparison between serum level of intact osteocalcin in adynamic bone disease group versus
other patients group was highly significant, being higher in other patients group.
There was no significant difference between adynamic bone disease patients and other
patients as regard serum phosphorus, and serum calcium but there was a sigificant difference as
regard age, while highly significant difference as regard sex, duration of hemodialysis, serum
intact osteocalin, iPTH and bAP.
These results suggest that combined estimation of serum iPTH, serum intact osteocalcin,
and bAP can provide a useful information on the bone status in uremic patients and repesent
reliable non invasive diagnostic tools for the prediction of adynamic bone disease.


Chronic renal failure is often
ased bone remodeling such as aluminum
associated either with increased bone
related low bone turnover,adynamic bone
resorption such as, secondary hyperparat-
osteopathy (Goodman et al., 1999).
hyroidism, osteoporosis, mixed bone
The prevalence of adynamic bone
disease, B2-microglobulin osteo-arthro-
disease in dialysis patients has probably
pathy (Gagné et al., 1992), or with decre-
increased during the last decade, reaching a

Full Paper (vol.21 paper# 19)