Rocuronium Bromide an experimental study
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 2 : 1 10 March 2001
Rocuronium bromide: a pharmacological study
*Maaly M.H Gaafary, **Essam F. Al. Alkami
*Department of Anaesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine For Girls Al-Azhar University.
**Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University.
This work was designed to assess the pharmacological effects of rocuronium. In either
isolated preparation or intact animals. Rocuronium (6-96 g/ml) caused a significant
dose related reduction in the amplitude of rat phrenic nerve diaphragm contraction in
response to indirect stimulation, the mean percentage reduction were statistically
significant. The addition of neostgmine (0.25 g/ml) caused complete reversal of the
relaxant effect of rocuronium . In intact cat gastrocnemius sciatic nerve preparation
rocuronium (25 - 200 g/kg) caused dose dependent statiscally significant reduction. In
comparing the drug with succinyl choline by the head drop method the mean time in
second was 15.34 ±1.57 and 10.44 ±0.91 respectively.
Rocuronium bromide is a neurom -
than at the adductor pollicis , while
uscular relaxant with a short onset time,
the diaphragm muscle is affected later
an intermediate duration of action and
but recover earlier . The rocuronium
rapid recovery with cardiovascular
activity is terminated by gradual
stability . In elderly patients, 0.9-mg
dissociation from the receptor shifting
kg-1 rocuronium does not produce any
the agonist/antagonist equilibrium in
significant changes in heart rate, blood
favour of acetylcholine. Its action can
pressure, plasma catecholamine . Its
be antagonized safely using 35 gkg-1
lack of histamine release is an important
neostigmine . Its potency is about 15-
feature that accounts for its stable
20% of vecuronium in animal and in
cardiovascular profile [3,4]. It is like
human, the lower potency is an advan -
vecuronium, a non depolarizing neurom
tage because it produced more rapid
-uscular blocking agent with mainly
onset probably due to the higher molar
post junctional effect and high degree of
concentration at the site of action .
selectivety for the receptors of the
In the present study, the pharm -
neuromuscular junction . Muscle
acological effect of rocuronium on an
paralysis is produced by competitive
intact cats or isolated preparation was
antagonism of the nicotinic cholinergic
recorded to illustrate its main favou -
receptors of skeletal muscles paralysis
occur first in the well perfused fast
muscles and late in the diaphragm.
Material And Methods
Onset of block is faster but less intense
In vitro experiments were designed to
at the adductor muscles of the larynx
Refree : Prof ; Talaat Abd El- Halim
Management of Brain Stem and Deep-Seated
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol. ,2: 11- 17
Rec . Nov. 2000
Comparitive Study Between Cnventional and Hyperfractionaltion
Radiation Therapy for The Treatment of Brain Stem Tumors
Dr. Laila Fares * (MD), Mamdouh Salama** (MD) Manal Moawad* (MD)
Sohair Helmy (MD)* and Dr. Hany M. Abd El-Aziz*
* Radiation Oncology and ** Neurosurgery Departments of
Ain Shams University.
Brain stem tumors are special challenge because primarily of their location and
the neurologic effect caused by these groups of tumors (Paul 1997).
Radiation therapy improves survival for brain stem tumors and stabilizes or
reverses neurologic dysfunction in 75-90% of patients.
The main domain of applicability of hyperfractionation would be in tumor sites
where the dose limiting tissue is late reacting and whose effective control requires the
delivery of doses beyond tolerance (Awwad, 1990), hence the rationale for the use of
hyperfractionation in brain stem lesions.
The purpose of this work is to find out the best radiation protocol in this group
of patients comparing conventional fractionation and hyperafractionation.
This study included 46 patients which brainstem tumors treated in Radiation
Oncology and Neurosurgery Departments Ain Shams University between February
1998 and May 2000.
These patients had been randomly distributed in 2 groups A and B. The first
group treated by conventional radiotherapy protocol and the second group treated by
hyperfractionation radiation protocol.
By the end of the study, the median over all survival and median time for
disease progression were calculated for each group.
Age, neurologic status at presentation and anatomical location were significant
By the end of this study clicinal evalualion had no significant difference
between both groups but the median over all survival for the two groups was 10.5
months, the median survival for group A was 9.4 months and that for group B was 11.5
months which was statistically significant P < 0.02.
On the other hand the percentage of patient with one year survival for group A
& B (22%, 32%) respectively.
The rate of acute (early) reaction of radiation is slightly higher in
hyperfracticmaticm than conventional fractionation but the late reactions occur with
same frequency with both regimens.
Refree : Prof ; Hamdy Zawam
Incidence of Larval and Adult Mite ( Sarcoptes scabiei) Stages in
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol. ,2 : 18 - 22
Incidence of Larval and Adult Mite ( Sarcoptes scabiei) Stages in
Scabietic Pateints from Three Regions of Qalyobia Govern orate
Gazaa H. Morsy
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Zagazig
University, ( Benha branch ) .
Human scabies is a highly contagious infestation caused by the itch mite,
Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. Although it is not a life threatening condition, yet it
may be considered important because some cases may be complicated by post-
streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Understanding of the conditions affecting the life
cycle of Sarcoptes scabiei is essential for prevention of its transmission in the
community. Scrapings from the affected skin were prepared from scabietic patients
attending the local pharmacies for buying medicine prescribed by physicians in
private clinics, or asking advice from the pharmacist, through-out the months of the
year. Statistical analysis of the data revealed a high correlation between the number of
patients, and the mean number of adult and larval stages of S. scabiei. In cold months,
more patients, mostly children(70%) were infested by a larger number of larvae and
especially below 2 years of age(c). It is
Scabies or "the classical itch" caused
truly a disease of poverty. Both sexes
by the human mite, Sarcoptes scabeii
are equally involved. The important
var. hominis is the most com -mon
predisposing factors are overcrowding
contagious ectoparasitic dermat -osis.
and poor hygiene. The source of
The parasite was rediscovered and
transmission is by close personal
established as the causative agent of
contact within the household (d).
scabies in 1687 by Bonomo and
The mite can be demonstrated
Cestoni (a) Although not a life threate -
by scrapping of papule or a burrow.
ning condition, yet it may be consid -
The scrapings are transferred to a glass
ered important from the public health
slide. Under the light microscope, one
point of view because it is found
may then look for mite, eggs or fecal
globally, it causes severe itching which
pellets known as scybala(e).
is extremely distressing and some
Thus, scabies which may appear
cases may be complicated by post-
to be an innocuous dermatosis, could
streptococcal glomerulo-nephritis. By
prove to be a major burden to public
systematic approach, this condition can
health if not managed adequately(f).
be managed appropriately and its
The aim of this work was to
transmission can be prevented in the
study the relationship between the
environmental temperature and relative
Scabies is transmitted by intim -
humidity and the epidemiology and
ate personal contact. The highest preva
mite intensity in residents of three
-lence rate may be seen in children,
areas of Qualyobia governorate.
Prof: Kamal Shehata.
Progressive effects of the interaction of Sodium nitrite and sunset yellow on different physiological parameters in albino rats
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 2 : 23 - 46
Progressive effects of the interaction of Sodium nitrite and sunset
yellow on different physiological parameters in albino rats
Eman. G.E. Helal
Al- Azhar University, Faculty of Science for girls, Zoology department.
It has been noticed that the Egyptian children usually eat and drink food containing both
food preservative and food colourants at the same time . This has attracted the attention
to study the interaction between one of food preservatives (sodium nitrite) and a food
coloring agent (sunset yellow). The mixture of the two agents at the limited dose of
each was found to be a lethal dose. So, 1/10th of this dose was used daily for 30 days.
Animals were devided into three groups. The first group served as a control, while the
second group was orally administered a mixture of 10mg sod. nitrite (NaNO3)/kg and
0.5 mg/ kg /day sun set yellow (S.S.Y)/. The third group received selenium (5 mcg/kg)
in addition to the above mentioned mixture. After 30 days of treatment, half of the
animals from each group were decapitated. The other half of animals was left for
another 15 days without treatment for recovery.
Ingestion of the mixture of (NaNO3 and S.S.Y) significantly decreased rat body weight,
R B C and WBC counts, Hb %. , Hct %. Serum inorganic phosphorus, serum protein
and serum albumin. Significant increases were observed in serum glucose, T3, T4,
calcium, GGT, LDH, Cpk, ALK.ph and cholesterol. Also cholesterol of brain, liver and
heart were significantly elevated. No changes were recorded for organ/ body weight,
respiratory rate, heart beats, rectal temperature, AST and ALT activities of serum and
tissues, acid phosphatase activity, total lipids of serum and tissues, cholesterol of muscle
and kidney and serum triglycerides
A complete recovery from the abnormalities of most biochemical and haematological
parameters was observed after 15 days recovery or when selenium was administered
This draws attention to the dangers of interactions of such preservatives and colorants.
The present study showed that even the permitted doses of colourants and food
preservatives may be harmful.
Food additives are substances
Because of the use of more than one
intentionally added to food. They may
type of such food ,the percentage of
be natural or synthetic (Harris, 1986).
nitrite content of the daily food ration
The principal classes of food additives
may be higher than the admissible level
are coloring agents, preservatives,
(Bilczuk et al., 1991). Apparently very
flavours, emulsifiers and stabilizers
little nitrites are formed by endogenous
(Lindsay, 1985). One of the principal
synthesis and most, if not all are of
preservatives are the nitrites which are
dietary origin (Bartholomew and Hill,
used in the form of salts or free acids
(HMSO, 1987). The use of sodium
Food colorants may often be
nitrite as a preservative is common in
considered simply cosmetic in nature,
cooked meat, sausages milk used for
but its role is very significant. Both
some types by cheese and pizza .
food quality and flavor are closely
Refree : Prof ; Ismail Sadek
Modification of controlled hypotension induced by nicardipine or nitroprusside in cats pretreated with injectable acetyl salicylic acid
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 2 : 47 56 March 2001
Modification of controlled hypotension induced by
nicardipine or nitroprusside in cats pretreated with
injectable acetyl salicylic acid
Mona M. Radwan
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine for Girls
Al-Azhar University, Egypt
Controlled hypotension is a well established technique to decrease blood loss
and improve surgical visibility. Several different pharmacologic agents have been used
for controlled hypotension including direct acting vasodilators such as sodium
nitroprusside and calcium channel blockers (Testa and Tobias, l995) . This study was
designed to assess the effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) acetyl
salicylic acid (ASA) therapy on the efficacy and safety of I.V. infusion of nicardipine
compared with the more commonly used agent; sodium nitroprusside. The effect of
each drug on blood pressure and ECG pattern of normal"control" cats and cats
pretreated with (ASA) was investigated. A target mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 55-65
mmHg was to be achieved.
It was found that both nicardipine and nitroprusside achieved a stable controlled
hypotensive state in control groups. Comparison between the two drugs revealed a
significant increase in (MAP) with nitroprusside after drug discontinuation.
Pretreatment with (ASA), attenuated significantly the effect of nicardipine infusion on
(MAP) . However, pretreatment with ASA produced insignificant effect on the
decrease in MAP caused by nitroprusside except at 4 min. during infusion where
ASA pretreatment attenuated its effect. Moreover (ASA) pretreatment decreased
nitroprusside dose needed to reach the target blood pressure and increased time of blood
pressure to returin to base line.
Both nicardipine and nitroprusside infusion caused increase in mean heart rate (HR)
without ECG changes in control and pretreated groups.There was a Statistically
significant increase in (HR) in the (ASA) pretreated groups of both drugs when
compared to that in the control groups. When the increase in (HR) induced by
nitroprusside infusion was compared to that induced by nicardipine infusion, there was
insignficiant difference in the control groups, while in (ASA) pretreatred groups the
difference was significant.
One of the commonly used
defined as a lowering of mean arterial
technique to limit blood loss and the
pressure (MAP) below 55 mmHg or a
possibility of transmitting infectious
decrease in (MAP) by one third or more
diseases in orth -opedic surgical
from baseline values (Yaster et al.,
procedures is controlled hypotension.
l986). They used (MAP) as the
Controlled hypo -tension; referred to as
determinant of the level of hypotension
delibrate or induced hypo -tension, is
because it sets the lower limit of
Refree: Prof . Ragaa Abaza.
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 2 : 57 69 March 2001
Effect of Aqueous Extracts From Some Plants
on Alloxan Diabetic Rats.
Gehan S. Moram
Biochemistry and Nutrition Department, College for women, Ain shams
The present study aims to clarify the effect of aqueous extracts from green tea, sage
(Salvia officinalis) and ginseng panax (panax quinquefolius L.) on the insulin sensitivity
in the alloxanized diabetic rats. The experiment included twenty four normal male
albino rats and 24 diabetic ones. They were classified into eight groups each of 6 rats.
Two groups served as control (one normal and one diabetic rats) and the other groups
were orally given the doses of aqueous extract for four weeks. The chemical analysis
included level of blood glucose, plasma insulin, serum total cholesterol, serum
triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and LDL- cholesterol, in addition to the influence of
these aqueous extracts on the liver glycogen and various enzymes of glucose
metabolism (Glucose 6-phosphatase, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase).
The results revealed significant decrease (p<0.05) in blood glucose, and highly
significant increase in both liver glycogen content and serum insulin level in the
diabetic group treated with aqueous extracts of tested plants in this study when
compared with the diabetic untreated group.
Serum lipids (triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL- cholesterol and HDL-
cholesterol) and various enzymes of glucose metabolism (ALT, AST, ALP and glucose-
6-phosphatase) showed significant decrease in the diabetic group treated with aqueous
extracts of tested plants when compared with the diabetic group. It is clear from the
current data in this study that ginseng aqueous extract was the most efficient of the three
Diabetes is a hetrogeneous group of
and an increase in the activity of
metabolic disorders characterized phys -
iologically by deficiency in insulin or
aminotransferases (AST and ALT).
insulin activity and clinically by hyper -
(Tanaka et al., 1988 and Rawi et al,
glycemia or impaired glucose tolerance
(Sheela and Augusti, 1992, Shibib et al.,
Several studies on enzymes
In the last decade, more than
involved in hepatic glucose metabolism
400 traditional plant treatments for
in rats with alloxan and streptozotocin
diabetes mellitus have been recorded,
diabetes have shown well defined
but only a small of these have received
changes, which consist primarily of a
scientific and medical evaluation to
decrease in the activity of glucokinase,
assess their efficacy. The most exten -
hexokinase (Sheela and Augusti,1992),
sively used plant additive in human
Refree: Prof. Abdalla Gomma
Effect of Some Environmental Factors on the Predation Efficiency of the Mosquito; Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae)
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 2 : 70 83
Effect of Some Environmental Factors on the Predation Efficiency of
the Mosquito; Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae)
Hanaa I. Mahmoud
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science (Girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.
The present work investigates the optimum conditions for the application of the
predaceous mosquito, Toxorhynchites splendens as a biological control agent for other
vector mosquito species in Egypt such as, Culex pipiens, Anopheles pharoensis and
Aedes caspius under field conditions.
The predation efficiency of T. splendens larvae was found to increase as the
temperature increased. At 30-35C the predaceous larvae consumed greater numbers of
both C. pipiens and Ae. Caspius than that of A. pharoensis. The predation of T. splen
dens occurred almost similarly in all degree of salinity. On the other hand, light was
found to have little effect on Toxorhynchites larvae where predation efficiency was
decreased in the dark. The crowding had no effect on the predation. Also no mortality
or natural diseases were observed among the tested insect larvae during the experim
ental period, whereas the insect preferred to live in highly concentrated population.
Toxorhynchites splendens larvae could live in turbid and distilled water. The
maximum number of prey larvae consumed by all instars of T. splendens was at PH (8)
followed by (7) and (9). However, pH, below (6) and above 11 had a bad effect on the
predaceous activity. The predation efficiency of T. splendens larvae increased gradually
as the depth of water decreased .However captures of prey occurred either on the
surface or at the bottom of the container.
Although insecticides continue
aquatic stages of mosquitoes. Among
to play a significant role in the control
the organisms most extensively studied
of mosquitoes involved in disease trans
in this regard are the larvae of the
-mission, biological control of mosquito
mosquito, Toxorhynchites splendens
with predatory organisms in most instan
( Mkoji et al., 1999). This species is
-ces is more acceptable from an enviro -
considered to be one of the most useful
nmental stand point and has been appl -
agents for the biological control of other
ied in many situations with reason -able
vector and nuisance mosquitoes (Cheo -
success (WHO, 1995).
ng and Ganapathipillai, 1964, Chan
Biological control with indige -
1968; Yasuno and Tonn, 1970) and also
nous predators/parasites may be more
for aedine vector of various diseases
available, comparatively less expensive,
such as filariasis, dengue and yellow
and more compatible with the economic
fever (Horio et al., 1990).
realities of many countries of sub-Saha
Recently, T. splendens mosq -
-ran Africa. Predatory organisms are
uito has been also recognized for use in
particularly suitable for control of
the isolation of arboviruses and filariae.
Prfree : Prof. Wedad Attwa
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 2 : 87 107 March, 2001
COMPARATIVE HISTOLOGICAL AND CLINCAL STUDY OF
TWO INHALAR ANAESTHETICS
Mahmoud A.A.Masoud * Nasr El-Din M. Siam**;
Karam M. El-Rouby**; Emad M.A.Emam**
Histology* and Anaesthesia & Intensive care** Departments Faculty of
Medicine Al-Azhar University
Sevoflurane (Fluromethyl 1,1,1,3,3,3, Hexafluoro isopropyl ether) is one of the newly
introduced inhalational Anaesthesia. It is considered as a rapid acting and potent
inhalation anaesthetic agent. It is metabolized in the body into non-toxic substances. It
also has a rapid uptake and elimination rate due to its low blood gas partition
coefficient, which approaches that of nitrous oxide. Interest in sevoflurane has increased
with the recent emphasis for out patient surgery because it has a mild ethereal odor and
low solubility in blood; lipid; and tissues. So, it is suggested as being anaesthetic of the
future. This study is designed to illustrate the histological and the clinical effects of
sevoflurane in comparison with isoflurane as a common inhalational anaesthetic agent,
regarding the haemodynamic, hepatic and renal effects. The clinical study included 80
adult persons of both sexes, during surgical operations. The patients were divided into 2
groups, 40 persons each. Group I: received sevoflurane and group II: received
isoflurane. Routine examinations; investigations; Liver and renal function tests were
done just before induction and after 2 hours; 4 hours; 24 hours and 7 days of recovery.
The experimental study was done on 90 rats of both sexes. They were divided into 3
groups: 30 rats each. Group (A): control group, group (B): Anaesthetized with
sevoflurane and group (C): Anaesthetized with isoflurane. Each group was subdivided
into 2 subgroups, 15 rats. The 1st subgroup was sacrificed after 24 hours of exposure.
The 2nd subgroup was sacrificed after 7 days from the start of exposure. The rats were
sacrificed and their blood was investigated. Liver and kidney structure were evaluated
histologically and histochemically. Our results revealed that, sevoflurane and isoflurane
had non-significant post-operative clinical manifestations and non-significant changes
on the liver or kidney function tests. Histological examination of liver revealed normal
hepatocytes and mild congestion in blood sinusoids and central veins in sevoflurane
group. While, liver sections in isoflurane group showed more congestion, dilatation and
cellular infiltration. . Histological examination of the kidney revealed no changes in the
sevoflurane group. In contrast, isoflurane group had congestion and cellular infiltration
of renal parenchyma. All changes almost completely disappeared after seven days of
recovery. Histochemical results revealed significant decrease in PAS positive material
and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme activity in hepatocytes and renal tubules, mainly in
isoflurane than sevoflurane groups. While, acid and alkaline phosphatase enzymes
activity showed non-significant decrease in both drugs. All changes were non-
significant after seven days of recovery. This study proved that the sevoflurane had no
harmful effect and can be considered as a safe inhalational drug.
Pefree: Prof : Fathey Matter
Estrogenic Effect of Orthopedic
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 2 : 108 120
Estrogenic Effect of Orthopedic
DDT on the Female Genital
Organs of Mice
Raifa F. El Garieb
National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology
Insecticide DDT (an organochlorine compound) has been used excessively and
widely all over the world. It was shown that orthopedic DDT (o-p'-DDT) a major
constituent of technical grade preparation of the pesticide- DDT exhibited estrogenic
activity in several animals species (Welch et al., 1969 and Bitman et al., 1968).
The aim of this work is to study the estrogenic effects of o-p'-DDT on the female
reproductive organs (ovary, uterus and vagina) of mice in its neonatal period.
In this study fifty of newly-born female mice were used and divided into five
groups; three groups of them were received ten intraperitoneal injections of o-p'- DDT
in doses of 0.25, 0.5 and 1mg/injection. The study included two control groups, the first
one was injected with 10 ugm estrogen for 10 injections and considered as positive
control, while the second group injected with sesame oil only. The animals were
scarified 2 days after the last injection. Paraffin and frozen sections were prepared for
both histological and histochemical studies. Different staining techniques were used
including Hx., E., modified gomori stain for alkaline phosphatase enzyme, methyl green
pyronin for RNA and PAS stain for glycogen content.
The results showed a distinct increase in number and size of ovarian growing
follicles in those animals treated with o-p'-DDT, also, increased activity of the alkaline
phosphatase enzyme, as well as increased content of RNA and glycogen was noticed.
The effect of o-p'-DDT on the uterine structure were in the form of hypertrophy of the
endometrial epithelium, also increase in number of uterine glands. Marked increase in
the activity of alkaline phosphatase enzyme and also in RNA content as well as
It was noticed also that high dose of o-p'-DDT leads to accelerated development
of the vaginal epithelium with evidence of keratinization. The histochemical changes in
the vagina were similar to those obtained in the uterus.
It can be finally concluded that the obtained results after use of o-p'-DDT were
similar to those obtained by estrogen, and this may interfere with implantation of ova
Refree : Prof . Moustafa Ismail.H.
THE PROTECTIVE ROLE OF ROYAL JELLY AGAINST SODIUM NITRATE AND SUN-SET YELLOW TOXCITY
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 2 : 121 137
The Protective Role Of Royal Jelly Against Sodium Nitrate And
Sun-Set Yellow Toxcity In Albino Rats
Eman G. E. Helal
Dept. of Zoology, Fac. of Science for girls, Al-Azhar University,
In last few years, all over the world, food preservatives and favorable food colour
are used in wide scale. However, their use in food still controversial.
It causes and will cause severe tension to the consumers as the sensitivity of
people to general health increases.
This work was carried out to study the possible toxic effect of the interaction of
one of food preservatives (sod. nitrite ) and one of the most favorable food colour (sun-
set yellow) on rates. To study the effect of this interaction, a mixture of 1/10 of the
limited dose of Na No3 and sun-set yellow was daily administered to rats. Other group
was supplemented with royal jelly in combination with the mixture to evaluate its
possible protective role during the course of experiment. Treatments were continued to
30 days, then half of the animals were sacrificed, the other half was left for 15 days after
the last dose without any additional treatment (as a recovery period). The result can be
summarized as follows:
Administration of sod. nitrite and sun-set yellow produced a significant
decrease in percentage of body weigh, W.B.Cs, R.B.Cs, Hb, Hct, inorganic
phosphorus, serum protein and serum albumin of rats.
A marked increase in respiration rate, serum glucose, T3, T4, calcium, -GT,
LDH, CPK, alk. ph., serum cholesterol and (brain, liver and heart cholesterol)
was recorded during treatment with the mixture.
Insignificant change in organ / b.wt., heart beat, rectal temperature, serum
and tissue AST and ALT, serum acid phosphates, tissue proteins, serum and
tissue total lipids muscle and kidney cholesterol and serum triglycerides was
Administration of royal jelly and to some extent a recovery period
ameliorated many hazards produced by using food additives. So, this study
threw light on the bad behavior and its hazards of using food additives and
food colour in the same time by our kids. It is also clear that royal jelly as a
natural product nearly ameliorate these damage. So, it's advisable to
administered royal jelly to children and prevent if possible the using of
additive and synthetic colour in their food.
Refree : Prof . Mostafa Mostafa Omar
Evaluation of Different Techniques in Diagnosing Chlamydial Endocervical Infection
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 2 : 138 147 March, 2001
Evaluation of Different Techniques in Diagnosing Chlamydial
Among Egyptian Females
Naglaa H. Mohamed and Taghreed M. Sharaf *
Obstetrics and Gynecology Department and *Clinical Pathology
Department. Faculty of Medicine for Girls.
Objective: To detect the prevalence of Chlamydia. Trachomatis infection
symptomatic and asymptomatic in Egyptian females and to evaluate the diagnostic
utility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), direct immunofluorescence technique (DIF),
and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of C Trachomatis
DNA, antigen and antibody respectively.
Study design: The study included 70 females who have been classified into :20
patients with tubal infertility, 15 patients with ectopic pregnancy, 20 patients with
premature rupture of membrane (PROM) and 15 apparently healthy women
(asymptomatic group). Endocervical specimens, vaginal swab and 3 ml blood samples
have been collected from all subjects and stored at 20 C till being processed.
PCR,DIF and ELISA techniques have been done to detect C. Trachomatis DNA,
antigen and antibody respectively.
Results: C. Trachomatis DNA was detected by PCR in the endocervix of 17 out
of 55 infected cases (30.9 % ). however DIF technique was positive for 21.6% of
patient groups and 13.3% of asymptomatic group. The tubal infertility group showed
the highest percentage of active C. Trachomatis infection (45%) (P<0.05) PCR showed
better sensitivity than DIF for detection of C. Trachomatis infection (96.2% versus 70%
respectively), however both techniques had 100% specificity. Tubal infertility group
showed highest sero prevalence (45%), followed by ectopic pregnancy group (35%) (P=
0.001 and P<0.05 respectively).
Conclusions: PCR procedure is suitable for confirmation of ELISA results in
high-volume laboratories. Cost, experience of the laboratory personnel and the patient
well-being must be taken into account to select the test for the detection of
Refree : Prof Dr. Gamal Abou El- Serour
Histological and Quantitative Study of the Effect of Eruca Sativa
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 2 : 148 162 March, 2001
Histological and Quantitative Study of the Effect of Eruca Sativa
Seed Oil on The Testis of Albino Rat
Mona A. R. Salem and Nehal A. Moustafa*
From Histology Dep., Faculty of Medicine And Zoology Dep., *
Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls)
Eruca Sativa (E.S) or Gargir seed oil is widely used in folk medicine. This study
was conducted to investigate its possible effect on male rat fertility. Histological
changes of the testis, level of testosterone hormone and sperm count were determined.
The results revealed that administration of low dose of E.S. seed oil caused
dilatation of the seminiferous tubules, proliferation of spermatogenic cells and increase
of its mitotic activity. Increased number of sperms and epididymis weight, elevated
level of testosterone hormone and hyperplasia of interstitial Leydig cells have also been
noticed. DNA analysis revealed an increase of the percentage of haploid and decrease of
diploid and tetraploid cells. Administration of E.S. seed oil at higher dose showed.
decreased diameter of the seminiferous tubules, reduced spermatogenic activity and
number of sperms . Also testosterone hormone level decreased and the interstitial cells
appeared few. DNA analysis showed a reduction of the percentage of the haploid and
increase of the percentage of diploid and tetraploid cells.
revealed normal concentrations of
Eruca Sativa (E.S) is known in
sodium, K and Mg following E.S oil
Egypt as Gargir. The seeds have long
treatment whereas iron concentrations
been used in folk medicine as a
increased as the dose increased.
lactagogue, aphrodisiac, diuretic, antis -
This study was performed to
corbutic, antimicrobial, to disintegrate
investigate the expected effects of the
renal calculi and induce vomiting
widely used E.S seed oil on male
( Greve, 1959 and Boulos, 1983).
fertility and on the histological structure
Flanders and Abdel-Karim (1985)
of the testis and to detect any side
proved that E.S seed oil contain 93.8 %
effects if present.
fatty acids: 6.7 %saturated acids, 58.5
%erucic acid, 4.5 % oleic acid, 28.5 %
Materials And Methods
linoleic acid and 1-2 % linolenic acid.
Thirty adult male albino rats,
In 1990, Thabit found that Eruca
weighing 150-170 g were used in this
Sativa mill has a diuretic effect on the
study. They were assigned into three
dog. Also, the seeds contain cancer
groups of 10 animals each .The 1st gro -
chemoprotective substances (Gerhauser
up served as control. The 2nd and 3rd
et al., 1997). According to EL-Gendy
groups were given two doses of E.S.
(2000), Eruca Sativa oil increased
seed oil (o.25 and o.5 ml/kg) respec -
RBC's count and its haemoglobin
tively (Thabit, 1990) three times/ week
content. Analysis of serum elements
(day after day) for 6 weeks. The oil
Refree : Prof . Dr. Hassan S. EL- Dawi
Histochemical studies on the role of pantothenic
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 2 : 163 180 March 2001
Histochemical studies on the role of pantothenic
acid on radiation damage of the kidney
*Omaima, S.Eissa and **Ashraf, M.Moustafa
* National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology,
** Histology Dept., Faculty of Medicine, AL-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
The present study was designed to evaluate effect of pantothenic acid to
gamma irradiated rats. Female albino rats (120-150gm) were subjected to (5
Gy) whole body 137Cs gamma irradiation. Fresh kidney specimens were
obtained after 1 and 4 weeks of treatment. Frozen sections were prepared for
histochemical study for localization of both acid, alkaline phosphatases and
succinic dehydrogenase enzymes. The enzymatic activity was quantitatively
evaluated and statistically analyzed. The obtained results showed significant
decrease in both alkaline phosphatase and succinic dehydrogenase enzymes
activity while the acid phosphatase enzyme activity was significantly
increased in comparison to the control group after one week, while after
four weeks the activity of both acid and alkaline phosphatase were
significantly increased, while the enzymatic activity of succinic
Pantothenic acid treatment (22 mg/kg body weight / day for 6 days) after
half hour of radiation showed marked improvement of the radiation induced
changes in the activity of measured enzymes.
Finally it could be concluded that pantothenic acid could be of value in
improving the radiation injury on the kidney.
Although our life style provides
Antioxidant defenses that protect
us with many advantages, the utilization
the body from free radical damage
of oxygen by cells results in the
production of highly reactive free
dismutase, catalase and glutathione
radical products. Uncontrolled reactive
peroxidase and several micronutrients
free radical can results in damage to cell
such as antioxidant vitamins (Oski,
structures and functions. Free radicals
are implicated in the progressive
Pantothenic acid is antipellagra
accumulation of tissue damage, which
vitamin essential to many animals for
in some individuals may eventually be
growth and health. It is widely
recognized as disease (Packer, 1991).
distributed in nature,
The toxic role of free radicals has been
amounts are found in the liver and some
appreciated in several forms of cellular
microorganisms. Bound forms of
injury and in a variety of disease states
pantothenic acid, such as coenzyme A
(Boner et al., 1988).
and 4`- phosphopantetheine, play an
Refree : Prof ; Moustaf Ismail