The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 17 : 1 ­ 11 Dec.2004
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 -2002

Mitochondria and Nuclear changes in postimplanted mice embryos
After treatment with Cisplatim antitumour drugs

Hassan M.El Ashmaoui
National Research center, Cell Biology Dept., Giza, Egypt

To evaluate a possible relationship of maternal exposure to capsulation during postimp-
lantation embryotoxicity, SWR pregnant female mice were injected intraperitoneally on day 4
of gestation with 7mg/kg cisplatin or with saline (0.4 ml) for the control group. Embryos were
collected after 24h 48h, 72h, after injection. ultrastructural sections were used to investigate the
mitochondria and the nuclear changes Both the mitochondria and the nuclei were damaged
specially 48h and 72 h after injection they may be related to cytotoxicity of the drug.
Key words: platinum antitumour drugs, Mitochondria, Nucleus, Mice embryos.

Cisplatin has been approved for
embryo cells to explore some possible
clinical use on limited basis in treating
avenues that can be followed to combat its
testicular and ovarian tumors (Rozencweig
toxic side effects.
et al 1977) it is a highly cytotoxic drug first

discovered by Rosenberg (1975)during his
Material and Methods
study on the effect of electric field on the
Inbred normal SWR/J male and
cellular growth.
female mice, 8-10 weeks old and weighting
It has been reported to interact mainly
28-30 g, were used throughout this study.
with the nuclear compartment where it
Animals were kept and bred in environm-
blocks DNA replication and separates the
entally controlled room with a temperature
tow components of the nucleolus (Pinto and
of 22±cŗ a relative humidity of 45 ± 5% and
Lippard, 1985; Burhn et al 1991).
light /dark cycle of 10/14h mouse food
However, effective chemotherapy
commercially available and water was
with cisplatin alone or in combination with
offered ad libitum.
other drugs on a wide variety of animal and
In each box 4-5 milliparous females
human tumors is still not free of side effect
were caged together with a single male .The
effects such as kidney toxicity, gastroint-
females were examined each morning for
estinal, nephro and neurotoxicity and also
the presence of vaginal plug; the day that
plug was detected was considered as day 0
Mollman, 1990;Amand and Bashey, 1993).
of gestation and the pregnant females were
We now believe that cisplatin coordi-
placed in separated cages.
nates with DNA and this coordination
A total of 30 pregnant females were
complex not only inhibits replication and
used, and divided into 6 groups 5 females in
transcription of DNA, but also leads to
programmed cell death (called apoptosis).
Group I, II, II, were treated with a
The primary action of cisplatin is on
single intraperitoneal injection of 7mg/kg of
DNA resulting in the inhibition of DNA
Cisplatin in day 4 of gestation and with
synthesis. The cytoarchitecture of the nuclei
0.4ml normal saline in group IA, IIA, IIIA,
and cytoplasmic organoids may be expec-
as control group for each group.
ted to be altered after treatment with cispla-
Female mice were killed by cervical
tin (Aggarwal and Sodhi 1973; Rosen et al,
dislocation after 24h in groups I, IA, 48h
for groups II, IIA, and after 72h for groups
This presentation,which is based on
electron microscopy studies, is an attempts
The abdominal cavity wall for each
to elucidate the effect of cisplatin on normal
female was opened and both uterine horns

Full Paper (vol.17 paper# 1)

Reproductive and Developmental Effects of Moxifloxacin on Female Mice and Embryos The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 17 : 12 ­ 19 Dec.2004
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 -2002

Reproductive and Developmental Effects of Moxifloxacin on Female
Mice and Embryos

Hanaa M. Roshdy
Cell Biology Department, National Research Center

Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Moxifloxacin (Avelox®) is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic with a broad spectrum of
activity and bactericidal action. Moxifloxacin has in vitro activity against a wide range of Gram-
positive and Gram-negative organisms. The safe use of moxifloxacin in human pregnancy has
not been established. In order to evaluate the genotoxic and embryo toxic effects of (Avelox)®
during pregnancy, Avelox was administrated orally to female mice with doses (8.7, 17 and 26
mg/kg/day) from 1 to 17 days of pregnancy. Caesarean sections were completed on gestation
day 18 and complete fetal examinations and cytogenetic analysis were conducted. Decreases in
the fetal body weights and increases in the external visceral and skeletal anomalies were found
in all doses of (8.7, 17 and 26 mg) Avelox compared to the controls. Cytogenetic analysis in
mothers and embryos revealed that all the tests doses produced chromosomal aberrations and
micronuclei (MN) formations in a dose dependent manner compared to the controls. These
results indicate that Avelox has a maternal and embryotoxic effects on the female mice and their
embryos when administered with a recommended and above the recommended dose during

Key words:
Moxifloxacin - chromosomal aberrations ­ micronuclei ­ mice ­ embryos


Antibiotics are medicines designed to
Based on their specific mode of
treat bacterial infections. A new fluoroq-
action, enzyme, inhibition, and in contrast
uinolone antibacterial for the treatment of
to chemical mutagens which directly
respiratory tract infections is known as
interact with DNA, no-effect levels can be
Avelox® (Moxifloxacin). Moxifloxacin
defined for Fluoroquinolones which act by
works Relialdy against all relevant respir-
enzyme inhibition if no enzyme inhibition
atory pathogens and is characterized by its
take place no genotoxic effect can be
rapid efficacy, excellent tolerability and
induced (Mah, 2004).
high cure rates. Patients begin to feel much
The safe use of Moxifloxacin in
better soon after starting therapy. Moreover,
human pregnancy has not been established.
clinical trials involving more than 8.000
Therefore, we study the effect of Avelox®
patients to date indicate that Avelox has a
(Moxifloxacin) on the pregnant females and
low propensity for the development of
embryos (in vivo) if given orally to mice
bacterial resistance (Minenko et al., 2004).
during the pregnancy.
Moxifloxacin inhibit the functionally

related mammalian to poisomerase II
Materials and Methods
(Tomas et al., 2004). As can sequence of

these effects Fluoroquinolones have shown
Test drug:
genotoxic effects in pro-and eulkaryotic
Moxifloxacin (Avelox) was provided
systems. However, it has to be taken into
from Bayer Laboratories (Moxifloxacin hy-
account that several orders of magnitude
drochloride) is a synthetic broad spectrum
higher concentrations as for gyrase are
antibacterial agent) and is available as Ave-
normally needed for topoisomerase-11-
lox Tablets for oral administration and as
inhibition (Drago et al., 2004).
Avelox I.V. for Intravenous administration.

Full Paper (vol.17 paper# 2)

Ultrastructural study of renal tubular damage induced by captopril in adult and fetal mice The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 17 : 20 ­ 43 Dec.2004
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 -2002

Ultrastructural study of renal tubular damage induced by captopril
in adult and fetal mice

Hamdy H. Swelim and Aleya A.Sakr
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University


The present study has been designed to evaluate the possible nephrotoxicity of the
angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril on renal tubules of adult and maternally
treated fetuses of CD-1 mice. The study included the effect of captopril administration for one
month up to three months in adults, while in fetuses, they were exposed to the drug through
their mothers in two periods. The first was from 6th-12th days of pregnancy, while the second
was from 6th -18th day of pregnancy. The dose used in the present study represents the dose
equivalent to the therapeutic daily dose taken by human. All the recorded tissue damage was
found to be time dependent. The first remarkable feature noticed in all the treated adult
animals was the presence of hyaline casts that obstructed most of the renal tubules. The
second remarkable feature was the increase of the intertubular space associated with
irregularity of the tubules due to the degeneration and vacuolation of the basal regions of the
cells. Renal tubule cells showed large blebs, accumulaton of lipids, degeneration and necrosis.
In maternally treated fetuses, the proximal convoluted tubule cells displayed moderate
vacuolation and marked increase of lysosomes while some of the distal convoluted tubules
revealed atrophy and their cells showed loss of mitochondria. In addition, the collecting
tubules showed loss of microprojections. Worthy to mention that there was apparent increase
of mesenchymal cells as well as fibroblasts in the fetuses maternally treated with captopril.
The significance of these changes was discussed and it should be emphasized that captopril
must be taken with caution for pregnant women and those who suffer from renal troubles.
Moreover, kidney function should be monitored during therapy .


(Isogai et al., 1998). It also exerts
(ACE) inhibitors are standard therapy for
significant functional and structural
cardiovascular diseases including conge-
protection against renal radiation injury in
stive heart failure and hypertension. ACE
rats (Moulder et al., 1996). In addition, it
inhibitors have been used worldwide and
protects lung from radiation induced
have been reported to cause relatively few
pneumonitis and fibrosis (Cohen et al.,
side effects. The antihypertensive effects
of these drugs are related to their ability to
Moreover, Cook and Besso (1997)
block the conversion of the decapeptide,
reported improvements in renal function in
angiotensin I, to the potent pressor octap-
cases of diabetic nephropathy as well as
eptide, angiotensin II. Thus cause vasodi-
proteinuric renal disease following capoten
lation and lowering of blood pressure
treatment. Hii et al., (1998) also found
(Yoshida et al., 1998). .
that capoten inhibits tumor growth in
human renal cell carcinoma.
emphasized as the agent with the most
On the other hand, it is well known
renal protective effect (Jovanovic et al.,
that the treatment with the antihype-
1998 and Gupta et al., 1999). It has been
rtensive drugs may be followed by a
used in several clinical trials to slow a
deterioration in the renal function.
progressive decline in glomerular function
Although the renal protective effects of
in patients with diabetic nephropathy
capoten are well recognized, only a few

Full Paper (vol.17 paper# 3)

Chemical, Nutritional and Microbiological Evaluation of So The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 17 : 44 ­ 57 Dec.2004
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 -2002

Chemical, Nutritional and Microbiological Evaluation of
Some Egyptian Soft Cheeses

1*Ghada, Z. A. A., 2*Alia, M. H., 3**Soha, Al-S., 4*Magdy, N. A., and 5*Mohammed, F. S.,

1 Lecture of Biochemistry, 2 Lecture of Food Hygiene, 3 Lecture of Nutrition, 4 Associate Prof of
Ecological Sciences, 5 Prof of Microbiology. *The National Nutrition Institute.
**Suez Canal University.


Milk and dairy products is considered the most complete foodstuff that provide human
either infants or adults with most of their vital needs. Milk and cheese have high nutritive value
due to its high content of protein, fat, minerals especially calcium (Ca2+) & phosphorous, and
vitamins. Two hundred samples produced and sold in Egypt during 2001-2003 were collected
from allover the country. The cheese samples were subjected to microbiological and chemical
analysis. Samples were microbiologically tested for total aerobic bacterial count (TABC),
Colifrm, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus, mould and yeast, salmonella and
shigella, and listeria species. Protein, fat, carbohydrates, moisture, ash, lactose, Calcium (Ca),
phosphorous (P) and Ca/P were evaluated. The analysis showed that total aerobic bacterial
count did not exceed 1.4X105±1.7X105 cells/gm, which is close to what allowed by the Standard
Egyptian Guidelines (2001) and 47.5 % of the tested cheese are free from coliform bacteria and
Escherichia coli. Ninety-eight and half percent, 97 %, 97 % and 91.5 % of the tested cheese
(kareish, feta, thalaga, double cream respectively), either made in plant or home or farmers'
cheese sample have zero Staphylococcus aureus count or mould and yeast; or salmonella and
shigella, or listeria species respectively, i. e. free from them. Double cream cheese has the
lowest protein content (7.79±0.78 gm%) while kareish cheese has the highest protein content
(19.99±1.32 gm%), but for fat content the opposite is true, double cream cheese have the
highest fat content (24.56±1.78 gm%) while kareish cheese have the lowest fat content
(3.87±0.97 gm %). Feta cheese has high ash content while kareish cheese has the highest
moisture content with the lowest ash content (68.97±1.86 & 1.81±0.47 gm% respectively).
Lactose content varies widely from 1.50±0.26 (double cream cheese) to 3.25±0.50 (feta cheese).
Kareish cheese has higher content of calcium and phosphorous (641.1±49.21 mg%,
431.18±37.21 mg% respectively) than the remaining types of cheese. Calcium & phosphorous
content of kareish cheese is almost the double content of the double cream cheese. Feta cheese
has higher Ca/P (1.65±0.19) while thalaga and double cream has lower Ca/P (1.34±0.13 &
1.37±0.20). Each 100 gm of soft cheese can provide children (1-8 y) & adult (9-50 y) from
39.78% & 24.48 % to128.22 % & 64.11% of their Ca Dietary Reference Intake and this from
double cream cheese and kareish cheese respectively.


Milk and dairy products represent the
(Ca2+), phosphorous, and vitamins (Badawi,
most popular foodstuff that provide human
1996; and Food composition tables, 1998).
with most of their vital needs. In
Cheese is made from milk through clotting
developing countries milk and dairy
using renin or through souring of the milk
products industry represent a powerful
(Miller et al., 1999). The used milk is either
economic income. In Egypt this industry
raw or pasteurized. Cheeses are made either
represent 35%. Milk and cheese have high
in large planning that is well equipped or in
nutritive value due to its high content of
small planning or in farmers' home or in
protein, fat, minerals especially calcium
unlicensed factories. The last three places

Full Paper (vol.17 paper# 4)

Possible Association Between the Chemokine Receptor Gene CCR5-Delta32 Mutation and Hepatitis C Virus Pathogenesis The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 17 : 58 ­ 62 Dec.2004
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 -2002

Possible Association Between the Chemokine Receptor Gene CCR5-
Delta32 Mutation and Hepatitis C Virus Pathogenesis

*Kouka Saad Eldin Abdel-Wahab, **Mohamed Foda, *Magda Abdel-
Moneim Gamil, *Azza-Hassan El-salakawy, ***Gamal El-Attar,
**Shinji Harada, **Yosuke Maeda
*Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine for Girls,
Al-Azhar University; Cairo, Egypt; **Department of Medical Virology School of
Medicine, Kumamoto University, Japan; ***Department of Internal Medicine,
Theodore Bilharz Institute, Imbaba, Egypt

CCR5-Delta32, a 32-base pair deletion of the CC chemokine receptor (CCR)5
gene, is associated with slowed human immunodeficiency virus disease progression in
heterozygotes and protection against infection in homozygotes between carriers and non-carriers
of each genetic variant. The present study investigated the frequency and clinical consequence
of the CCR%-Delta32 mutation in Egyptian HCV infected patients. Genomic DNA samples
from 150 patients with chronic HCV infection were screened by PCR for the presence of the
CCR5-Delta32 polymorphism. One hundred blood donors were used as control population.
Results: The frequency of CCR5-Delta32 heterozygosity was 0.67% in chronic hepatitis C
virus and 0% in controls. The CCR5-Delta32 allele was not associated with any of the clinical
parameters of hepatitis C virus infection.
Conclusion: In this study, the frequency of CCR5-Delta32 homozygosity in patients with
hepatitis C was similar to controls.


Chemokine and chemokine receptor
of HCV-infected hepatocytes. Several
genes are strong candidate genes for
allelic variants of chemokine receptors have
outcome of HCV. Chemokines are 8- to 10-
been shown to be important in the
kd proteins with 20% to 70% homology in
pathogenesis of viral infection. The most
amino acid sequences. There are approx-
widely known, a 32-base-pair deletion in
imately 40 chemokines identified to date,
the open reading frame of CCR5
which are classified according to the confi-
(CCR5D32) is associated with protection
guration of cysteine residues near the N-
against human immunodeficiency virus 1
terminus into 4 families: CC-, CXC-, and
(HIV-1) infection and delayed progression
CX3C-. They play important roles in
to AIDS in white populations.
leukocyte trafficking to sites of infection
The importance of the HIV-1 co-
and in regulating T helper cell polarization.
receptors has been highlighted by the fact
They also have crucial roles in linking
that individuals who possess two alleles of
innate and adaptive immunity. Chemokine
a 32-base pair deletion in CCR5 coreceptor
receptors are G-protein coupled, 7-transm-
gene that abrogates cell surface expression
embrane receptors, which are categorized
of the CCR5 molecule display near absolute
based on the chemokine class they bind.
resistance to HIV-1 transmission (Dean et
Chemokine-chemokine receptor interac-
al., 1996). About 20% and 1% of
tions are likely to be important in chronic
Caucasians are heterozygous and homo-
hepatitis C, where T cells are recruited to
zygous, respectively, for the CCR5-Delta
the liver parenchyma to mediate clearance
32 allele (Huang et al., 1994).

Full Paper (vol.17 paper# 5)

Cytogenetic and Developmental Effects of Antidepression Drug (Cipralex) on Female Mice and Embryos The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 17 : 63 ­ 69 Dec.2004
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 -2002
Cytogenetic and Developmental Effects of Antidepression Drug
(Cipralex) on Female Mice and Embryos

Hanaa M. Roshdy & Thanaa M.T Shoman

Cell Biology Department, National Research Center
Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
Escitalopram (cipralex®) a new highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, it is
effective in the treatment of patients with major depression. To evaluate the cytogenetics and
developmental effects of cipralex throughout major organgenesis, mice were administrated
orally with a doses of 0.06, 0.12 and 0.24 mg/kg/day cipralex on gestation days 1-18 and
examined on the 19th day of gestation for evidence of maternal and fetal toxicity. Cipralex at
different doses tested produce significant toxic effects in reproductive parameters. Significant
embryo fetotoxic effects were observed at tested dose levels as evidenced by total number of
implantations, post. Implantation loss and embryo malformations. There were increases in the
frequencies of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in both maternal and embryonic cells
treated with cipalex, these increases were dose dependent. These results indicate that cipralex is
considered to be cytogenetic and embryo toxic drug when administered during pregnancy.

Key words:-
Escitalopram - chromosomal aberrations ­ micronuclei ­ embryo ­ mice


Depression is a common and serious
Escitalopram (Cipralex), a new highly
disorder, every year, depression affects
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. It is
10% of adult humans over age 18,
effective in the treatment of patients with
depression takes a big toll is suffering and
major depressive disorder (Croom and
can lead to suicidien severe cases.
Plosker, 2003). Due to the risk associated
However, scientists do not know the exact
mechanism that triggers depressive illness.
(Cipralex) therapy is generally continued
In the past scientists believed that
during pregnancy.
depression was the result of thoughts or
For Escitaloprom (Cipralex) no
emotions that were troubling for a person.
clinical data are available regarding
More recently, experts realize that there can
exposed pregnancies. In rat reproductive
be several factors working together that will
lead a person to become depressed. The
Escitalopram, embryo-toxic effects, but no
three most important of these are biological,
increased incidence of malformations, were
genetic and environmental factors (Croom
observed. So, in the present study we
and Plosker, 2004).
examined the cytogenetics effect of
Biological causes are due to the
Escitaloprom on pregnant mice and
changes in the chemistry of the brain, such
embryos and the fetal developmental
as fluctuations in the levels of important
toxicity of cipralex given orally to mice
during the pregnancy.
Genetic causes are the result of what

you inherit from your parents, if one or both
Materials and Methods
of parents have a depression, then it can be
1. Test drug:
transmitted to sons. Environmental factors,
CipralexR (Escitalopram oxalate) is
result from stressful emotional situations,
sparingly soluble in water slightly soluble
depression can also occur as a result of a
in acetone, freely soluble in methanol, its
combination of the three factors.

Full Paper (vol.17 paper# 6)

L -Carnitine and Melatonin reverse CCl4 induced Liver fibrosis In Rats (Histological and Histochemical studies) The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 17 : 70 ­ 92 Dec.2004
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 -2002

L -Carnitine and Melatonin Reverse CCl4 Induced Liver Fibrosis In
Rats (Histological and Histochemical Studies)

Fatma, A. Morsy, Abdel Razik, H. Farrag and Sonya, L. El-Sharkawy


Carbontetrachloride (CCl4) is closely related chemically to chloroform and likewise in
hepatic poisons. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of carbon tetrachloride on liver
of male rats and the reversing effects of L-carnitine and melatonin on established liver fibrosis.
A total of 72 adult male albino rats were used in this study. The animals were divided into six
groups. Group (1) animals of the first group were kept as control andtreated with paraffin oil
twice weekly for eight weeks. Group (2) rats of the second group were injected with CCl4
intraperitoneally at 0.15 ml per rats (diluted 1:1 in liquid paraffin) twice weekly for eight weeks
to produced liver fibrosis. Group (3) following establishment with CCl4 which induced liver
fibrosis, the rats were treated with L-carnitine at a dose level of 50 mg/kg for four weeks. Group
(4) rats with liver fibrosis were injected intraperitoneally with melatonin at dose level of 10
mg/kg for four weeks. The fifth and sixth groups were given L-carnitine and/or melatonin at
dose levels of 50 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg respectively for four weeks.
Histological changes in the liver of rats treated with CCl4 including liver fibrosis,
architecture distortion and appearance of many pseudolobule. The fibrous tissues run in septa
between the nodules. The liver damage varied from one area to another and varied from
moderate fibrosis to cirrhosis.
Quantitative measurement of the severity of liver fibrosis (area damage) was achieved by
using computerized image analysis (Leica image) showed that highly significant increase in area
of fibrosis was recorded in the case of rats treated with CCl4 only.
Quantitative DNA image analysis showed that 3% of aneuploid cells could be noticed in
liver of rats treated with CCl4 only. Histochemical results of rats treated with CCl4 showed
highly significant increase in grey level of mucopolysaccharides and protein levels. No
histological and histochemical changes could be noticed in the liver of rats treated with either L-
carnitine or melatonin only. Both L­carnitine and melatonin were found to reverse CCl4 induced
liver damage.
Keywords: L-carnitine, melatonin, carbontetrachloride, liver fibrosis, rats, histological,


Carbontetrachloride (CCl4) are group
and dry cleaner under the trade name of
of hydrocarbons. All hydrocarbons, are
"pyrene" and "carbona". CCl4 is sometimes
central nervous system (CNS) depressant.
used by hair dressers as dry shampoo
Aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons
(Rubbin, et al., 1984). Chronic exposure to
are rapidly absorbed and distributed into the
CCl4 lead to plastic anemia and irreversible
central nervous system, liver and kidney. It
bone marrow damage (Sullivan and
is closely related chemically to chloroform
Krieger, 1992).
and likewise in hepatic poisons (Wilson, et
L ­ carnitine is synthesized in the
al., 1991). Carbontetrachloride has a wide
body from the amino acids lysine and
spread use in various industries as a solvent
methionine. L­carnitine is a valuable as a
(El-Dessoky, et al., 1978). CCl4 has been
high quality supplement from body building
introduced into home as fire extinguisher
come, as well as from natural and synthetic

Full Paper (vol.17 paper# 7)

Biological effects of ivermectin on the fowl tick The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 17 :93 ­ 105 Dec.2004
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 -2002

Biological effects of ivermectin on the fowl tick
Argas (Persicargas) persicus (Oken) (Ixodoidea: Argasidae)

Marzouk, A.S.*; Swelim, H.H.*; Montasser, A.A.*and Gadallah, A.I.**
*Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University
** Department of Medical Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University


The present study is carried out to assess the effect induced by different single
subcutaneous injections of ivermectin (IVM) (100, 200, 400, 800 or 1600 g/kg pigeon weight)
injected 2 or 7 days before tick feeding on some biological parameters such as mobility and
viability, sexual activity, ingested blood, amount of coxal fluid, blood digestion and fertility in
the tick Argas (P.) persicus to define the effective dose. This effective dose was used in similar
assessment conducted 2 or 3 weeks post injection in order to confirm the degradation of
ivermectin concentration in the host blood and to determine the number of required doses for
complete control . From this study we conclude: 1) IVM induces complete immobilization of
both males and females when they are fed on hosts injected by doses over 100 g/kg. 2) The
use of two doses of 400 g/kg with a week interval completely controls the tick population. 3)
Sexual response was completely negative at doses over 200 g/kg. 4) The amount of coxal fluid
emitted by both sexes decreased markedly when fed after host injection with all doses, whereas
the amount of ingested blood remained generally not highly affected. 5) The number of
ovipositing females, number of eggs deposited and their hatching percent decreased markedly
with the increase of dose used. Blood digestion was not noticed in males at doses >200 ug/kg
and in females at doses >100ug/kg .

Key Words:
Argas, Efficacy, Ivermectin, Ixodoidea, Oviposition.


A. persicus is a specific parasite of
1981; Lancaster et al., 1982a,b; Soll et al.,
domestic and certain wild birds in parts of
1984; Cramer et al., 1988a,b; Ash and
the world (Hoogstraal, 1985). It may feed
Oliver, 1989; Wilson et al., 1991; Gonzales
on humans and cause severe irritation (Yu
et al., 1993; Miller et al., 1997; Morsy and
Quan et al., 1995). It is an efficient reser-
Haridy (2000).
voir and/or vector for several viruses, rick-
The present study is undertaken to
ettsia, spirochaetes and mycoplasms (cited
assess the effect induced in A. persicus fed
by Hoogstraal, 1985; Nemova et al., 1990).
on hosts injected by different doses of IVM.
IVM, a macrocyclic lactone, has an
The work includes bioassays on some
excellent activity against a broad spectrum
biological parameters such as viability,
of nematodes and ectoparasites of human
sexual behavior, amount of ingested blood
and domestic animals (Shoop et al., 1995 ;
and emitted coxal fluid, blood digestion and
Casado et al.,2002 ). The subcutaneous
fertility to define the effective dose.
route of drug administration is more

persistent in the plasma and more effective
Materials And Methods
than when administered through other

formulations (McKellar and Benchaoui,
Tick rearing: A. persicus used in the
1996). A considerable literature dealing
present work originated from ticks obtained
with the activity of IVM against several
from a fowl house in Giza Governorate,
species of ticks used this route ( Egerton et
Arab Republic of Egypt and maintained in
al., 1980; Wilkins et al., 1980; Frossard,
the Zoology Department laboratories,

Full Paper (vol.17 paper# 8)

Acute Hepatitis E The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 17 :106 ­ 114 Dec.2004
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 -2002

Acute Hepatitis E. virus infection in Egypt

Osman*, F, Abu-Shady**, EA, Abd El-Wahab**, KSE, El-Rashidy**, ZE,

Abbassia Fever Hospital, Ministry of Public Health*
Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine ­
Al-Azhar University (Girls)**


Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is largely responsible for water borne epidemics in many
developing countries. The principle mode of HEV transmission is the fecal oral route in
epidemic and sporadic forms with a high case fatality ratio in pregnant women. Serum samples
from 50 healthy subjects and from 435 acute viral hepatitis patients, 4-75 years old, were
screened for markers of acute viral hepatitis. These included (HBsAg, anti-HBc (IgM), anti-
HDV (IgM), HAV (IgM), anti-HCV (IgG), and anti-HEV (IgG), and (IgM) tests by enzyme-
linked immunoassays (EIA).
Furthermore isolation of HEV from peripheral blood lymphocytes and from stools
belonging to anti-HEV IgG-positive patients was attempted by inoculation of HepG2 and Vero
cell line cultures. The inoculated cell cultures were examined after immunoperoxidase staining
for the detection of HEV antigen. Plasma, lymphocytes and stool samples from anti-HEV IgM
positive patients were examined for HEV RNA by PCR.
Anti-HEV IgG was found in 144/435 (33%) of these acute hepatitis patients. Anti-HEV (IgM)
was detected in 8/52 (15.4%) out of 52 chosen from the 144 sera that were anti-HEV IgG
positive cases.
HEV was isolated in HepG2 from 32.6% of lymphocyte and from 34.9% of stools from
patients positive for anti-HEV (IgG). While it was isolated from 71.4% of lymphocytes and
from 100% of stools from patients positive for anti-HEV (IgM). In Vero cell cultures there was
no HEV isolation from stools but HEV was isolated from 50% of lymphocytes. HEV RNA was
detected by PCR in 85.7% of stools, 62.5% of plasma, and in 37.5% of lymphocyte samples
belonging to anti-HEV IgM positive cases. Analysis of these diagnostic tests indicated that virus
isolation from peripheral blood lymphocytes and stools by inoculation of HepG2 cell cultures is
more sensitive than virus-RNA detection by PCR


Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes an
with maternal mortality rates reaching as
enterically transmitted hepatotropic infec-
high as 25 % as opposed to 0.07-0.6% in
tion spreads by the fecal oral route usually
the general population (Mishra and Seef,
through fecally polluted water. Acute viral
1992). Abortion with evidence of fetal HEV
hepatitis develops after an incubation
infection followed acute maternal infection
period of 8-10 weeks. Clinical attack rates
(Abdel Wahab et al. (1996); Abou El Kheir
are the highest among young adults.
et al. (2004) under publication).
Asymptomatic and anicteric infections
In humans and in experimental virus
occur but chronic HEV infection is not
infection of animals viral excretion in stools
recorded. Acute HEV hepatitis may be
began approximately 1 week prior to the
particularly severe among pregnant women,
onset of illness and persisted for nearly 2

Full Paper (vol.17 paper# 9)

Ultrastructural Studies of The Pigment Epithelium The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 17 :115 ­ 129 Dec.2004
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 -2002

Ultrastructural Studies of The Pigment Epithelium
of Retinae of Some Reptiles

Fairoze Khattab ; Fahmy I. Khattab; Nagui Fares and Aman Zaki
(Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science ,Ain Shams University,
Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt.

The present work was designed to reveal the fine structure of the pigment epithelium of
the retina in four different reptiles: the homed viper Cerastes cerastes (diurnal and nocturnal),
the European Chameleo chameleon (diurnal),the gold skink Eumeces schenrdii (diurnal) and the
Egyptian gecko Traentola annularis (nocturnal) . The pigment epithelium of each type reptiles
possessed certain unique features in their morphology and ultrastructure to accommodate with
their day and night activity. The most striking feature was the presence of myoid bodies in the
pigment epithelium of the diurnal reptiles. These bodies trigger the photomechanical movement
of the myoid region in cones of their retinae.

The visual system of vertebrates and
(Eumeces schenrdii)and Egyptian gecko
many higher invertebrates has evolved to
(Tarentola annularis) were used. All anim-
provide a detailed picture of the surrou-
als under investigation were collected from
nding environment (Bowmaker, 1991).
Abou-Rawash district ,Giza Governarate, in
Retina is the light sensitive part of the eyes
. It is located near the eye, corresponding to
Animals were sacrificed and the
the film of the camera (Villee et al.
whole eye of each animal was quickly
,1989).The retinal pigment epithelium
removed. The whole eye was then placed in
(RPE) is the outer most (scleral) layer of
5% glutraldehyde, buffered to pH 7.3 at 4oC
the retina. It has several processes which
.after one hour a circular cut was made
accommodate with the proper function of
parallel to the corneal margin with a sharp
the photoreceptors and ultimately to vision
razor blade. This caused the division of the
itself (Braekevelt and Richardson 1996).
eye into two portions. The posterior
The melanin granules of the pigment
portion, containing the retina, was cut into
epithelium act as photo pigment involved in
small pieces, about 1 mm2each .The
protecting the retina from sudden bright
samples were placed in fresh 5% cold
junctions, directly with the iris muscles
glutraldehyde and fixation was continued
(Moyer,1969). As a consequence of these
for five hours. Samples were then washed
several important functions, these region of
in two changes of cold phosphate buffer,
the vertebrate retina has been investigated
pH 7.3,for 1 hour. The specimens were then
in a variety of animals and with variety of
post-fixed for 1-2 hours in buffered 1%
techniques. Morphological studies have
osmium tetraoxide. They were washed
shown as remarkable similarity throughout
twice for 15 minutes, in phosphate buffer,
vertebrate species but with phylogenetic
pH 7.3,then dehydrated in ascending grades
differences usually present (Nguyen-
of ethanol to propylene oxide and
Legros, 1978;Kuwabara, 1979 ,Braekevelt,
embedded in Araldite each.
1980, 1986, 1988,1992,1993 and 1994).
Semithin sections of 0.7m thickness

were cut with glass knives on the 6000 MT
Materials And Methods
RMC ultratome. Stained with 0.25%
In the present work, four adult
toludine blue (Davis,1971).and examined
Egyptian reptiles, the homed viper
by light microscopy. Thin sections (600-
(Cerastes cerastes), European Chameleon
700o A ) were then cut and collected on
copper grids. These sections were stained

Full Paper (vol.17 paper# 10)

Immunohistochemical Study Of Bcl-2 Protein And Estrogen Receptor-Alpha Expression In Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia And Prostati The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 17 :130 ­ 142 Dec.2004
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 -2002

Immunohistochemical Study Of Bcl-2 Protein And Estrogen
Receptor-Alpha Expression In Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
And Prostatic Carcinoma

Ahmed H. Abel-Rahman- Ghada A. Abdel-Aziz*- Ali Emad S** Abdel-
Basset A. Badawy***- Alaa Ar. Abdel-Hafez***
Departments of Pathology, Dermatology & Veneriology* and Urology**
Al-Azhar University (Assiut & Girls) and South Valley University***


The human prostate, a male sexual accessory tissue involved in seminal fluid production,
has a remarkably high incidence of hyperplastic and neoplastic disease. The present study was
carried out on one hundred and twenty (120) specimens divided into two groups; group 1:
Included forty cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and group 2: Included sixty cases of
prostatic adenocarcinoma (PC) (22 were low grade; GS: 2-6 and 38 were high grade; GS: 7-
10),in addition to twenty cases of histologically normal prostates taken as controls.
Immunohistochemical technique was applied to detect Bcl-2 as well as ER positivity in all
specimens. Group 1 showed the following profile: ER (+) in all cases (100%), Bcl-2 (-) in
95%, ER (+) / Bcl-2 (+) in 95%, ER (-) / Bcl-2 (+) in 0%, ER (+) / Bcl-2 (-) in 5% and ER
(-) / Bcl-2 (-) in 0% of cases while group 2 showed the following profile: ER (+) in 30%, Bcl-2
(+) in 21.7%, ER (+) / Bcl-2 (+) in 15%, ER (-) / Bcl-2 (+) in 6.7%, ER (+) / Bcl-2 (-) in
15% and ER (-) / Bcl-2 (-) in 70% of cases. The mean epithelial ER -immunolabeling was,
however, significantly increased in group 2 than in group 1 (P < 0.05) which, in turn, being
higher than the normal cases (P<0.05 ) . Among group 2 , the mean ER
was significantly more in high grade than in low grade tumors (P < 0.05), however, the mean
ER immunolabeling revealed no significant correlation with T-stage (P = 0.219) or with the
clinical stage (P = 0.391). In contrast, the Bcl-2 immunostaining was statistically higher in
group 1 than in group 2 (P < 0.05) and showed a significant correlation with T stage (P < 0.05)
although the study displayed no significant correlation between Bcl-2 immunopositivity and
either Gleason score (P = 0.125) or the histologic grade (P = 0.146). In addition, combined ER
(+)/ Bcl 2 (+) immunoreactivity demonstrated the aggressive subgroup of PC cases more
accurately than either ER (+) or Bcl-2 (+) alone. Finally, multivariate analysis showed that
the Bcl-2, proved to be an independent prognostic indicator (P < 0.05). Thus, the
immunohistochemical expression of ER and Bcl-2 protein in prostatic tissue may aid in better
understanding the biology and genesis of both prostatic hyperplasia and carcinoma .

Key words:
Bcl-2, Estrogen receptor-alpha, Immunohistochemistry, Benign prostatic
hyperplasia, Prostatic carcinoma.


Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
hormonal balance has been suspected to be
occurs in approximately 70% of men over
implicated in the etiology of BPH
70 years old and develops at a time when
particularly following the discovery that 17
the levels of testosterone are falling and
-estradiol acts synergistically with testost-
estrogen levels are rising, thus, resulting in
erone in experimentally induced BPH in the
an increase in the estrogen: androgen
dog(2). For estrogen to be directly involved
ratio(1). This age-related shift in the
in the genesis of human BPH, the prostate

Full Paper (vol.17 paper# 11)

ž˙ The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 17 :143 ­ 154 Dec.2004
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 -2002

Mutagenic studies on the effect of Aldicarb "Temik" and vitamin C as
antioxidant agent on the white rat:
(Chromosomal aberrations and Micronucleus tests)

Fatma M. Hamam* and Ihab H. Foda
*Department Of Mammalian Toxicology, Central Agricultural Pesticides Laboratory,
Agricultural Research Center, Ministry Of Agriculture.


Widespread contamination of the environment due to increased and frequently
indiscriminate usage of insecticides during the last two decades has aroused much concern over
the possibility of their radiominetic effect. Evidence accumulating over the years emphasized
the indisputable link between certain insecticides, chromosomal damage and possibility of gene
mutation. There is a wide variety of insecticides, among which the carbamates. Their chemical
relationship to ethyl carbamate makes them worthy of study for their possible deleterious effect
on biological system. The main object of the present study is to evaluate the mutagenic effect of
a carbamate insecticide" Aldicarb" alone and in combination of vitamin C as an antioxidant
agent to decrease their mutagenicity. Male albino rats were tested orally for 48 hours , two doses
of aldicarb were used in absence and in the presence of viamin C (1/4 and 1/10) LD50. The
obtained data showed highly significant increase in the micronucleus (PCEM) and in
chromosomal aberrations in rat bone marrow cells at the two doses of aldicarb compared to
control group. (P< 0.0001). The frequency of chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus
decreased in rats treated with aldicarb and vitamin C than in aldicarb treated group. From these
results we concluded that cytogenetic effect of aldicarb might be decreased by the usage of
vitamin as an antioxidant agent.

Key words : Carbamate, Aldicarb, Chromosomal aberration, Micronucleus, Antioxidant


The genetic integrity of human
approaches, although in human biomon-
populations is increasingly under threat due
itoring studies, the cytogenetic assays are
to industrial activities, which result in
the most commonly used (Pastor et al.,
exposure to chemical and physical genot-
2001). Chromosomal aberrations (CA) may
oxins. Other factors, which can influence
be used as an early warning signal for
genetic damage, include life style factors.
cancer development, and it has been
E.g. diet, various medical therapies, and
suggested that the detection of an increase
climatic damage e.g., increased exposure to
in chromosomal aberration, related to an
UV radiation due to depletion of atmos-
exposure to genotoxic agents, may be used
pheric ozone (Fenech, 1993). According to
to estimate cancer risk (Carrano and
IARC (1991) more than 25% of pesticides
Natarajan, 1988 and Hagmar et al., 1994).
are classified as oncogens. Changes in
The observation that chromosomal damage
genetic material are the basis of this process
can be caused by exposure to ionizing
because many environmental pollutants are
radiation or carcinogenic chemicals was
chemical carcinogens and mutagen with the
among the first reliable evidence that
capacity of causing DNA damage (El-
physical and chemical agents can cause
Khatib and Rokaya, 2001).
major alternations to the genetic material of
The testing for genetic damage
euokaryotic cells (Evans, 1977). In the
induction has been carried out by different

Full Paper (vol.17 paper# 12)

EVALUATION OF HYDATID DISEASE The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 17 :155 ­ 166 Dec.2004
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 -2002

Evaluation Of Hydatid Disease (Echinoccosis)
In Algmeil Hospital (2002 ­ 2003)

Abdel-Hakim Rezeeg

Assistant Professor Of Surgery
Algmeil Hospital - Libia

Hydatidosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the dog tapeworm Echinococcus
and its larval stage, the hydatid cyst. Humans can accidentally become intermediate hosts by
ingesting the eggs of the tapeworm. While most cysts deve lop in the liver and lungs. animals.
At present, four species of the genus Echinococcus are recognized and regarded as
taxonomically valid: E. granulosus (cystic hydatidosis), E. multilocularis (multivesicular
hydatidosis), E. vogeli (polycystic hydatidosis) and E. oligarthrus (Soulsby, 1982). A total
number of 23 patients were included in this study. 13 patients were females while the rest 10
were male patients. All cases were properly diagnosed as Hydated disease and then treated in
the surgery Department of Algmeil Hospital (Libia) in the last 2 years (2002 and 2003). Proper
investigations as well as treatment were carried out. The obtained results were statistically
analyzed. Four types of presentation of the disease were observed in this study and presented,
Asymptomatic 78.26%, Obstructive jaundice 8.69%, Accidental rupture 8.69% and Pressure
symptom 4.34%. In spite of the progress in these areas, echinococcus/ hydatidosis remains a
serious public health problem in a number of countries. It is very important to support and
implement new control programmes so as to prevent further spread of the disease. Research in
possible vaccines is essential in order to supplement the existing methods of breaking the
Echinococcus life cycle.

Introduction and historical review

Echinococcosis/hydatidosis is a zoonotic
domestication and spread of some of these
parasitic disease caused by the dog
animals from Europe to other parts of the
tapeworm Echinococcus and its larval
world has given Echinococcus granulosus a
stage, the hydatid cyst. This parasite is
worldwide distribution. It has been
found worldwide and causes serious public
extensively studied in a number of different
health problems in certain parts of the
geographical areas and is now present in
world (Schantz, 1990). In addition there are
Asia, Africa, South and Central America
economic losses from the condemnation of
and the Mediterranean region (McManus
affected organs.
and Smyth, 1986). It is also common in
Echinococcosis is a cyclozoonosis
parts of the United Kingdom, Europe and
that requires two vertebrate hosts to uphold
Australia (Cook, 1989; Schantz, 1990).
the life cycle. Humans can accidentally
Some countries, such as Iceland and
become intermediate hosts by ingesting the
Cyprus, have already eradicated or are close
eggs of the tapeworm. While most cysts
to eradicating the disease. Control measures
develop in the liver and lungs, other organs
in New Zealand and Australia (Tasmania)
arid tissue may become affected (Soulsby,
have significantly reduced the prevalence of
E. granulosus, and successful control
The wide variety of animal species
programmes are currently being conducted
that can act as intermediate hosts and the
in Turkana (Kenya), Chile and the People's

Full Paper (vol.17 paper# 13)

Retinal Photoreceptor Fine Structure in some reptiles The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 17 :167 ­ 186 Dec.2004
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 -2002

Retinal Photoreceptor Fine Structure in some reptiles

Fairoze Khattab; Fahmy I. Khattab; Nagui Fares and Aman Zaki
(Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University,
Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt.)


The structure of the photoreceptors of four different reptiles: the homed viper Cerastes
(diurnal and nocturnal), the European Chameleo chameleon (diurnal), the gold skink
Eumeces schneidrii (diurnal) and the Egyptian gecko, Tarentola annularis (nocturnal) has been
investigated by light and electron microscopy.
The photoreceptors of diurnal reptiles were mainly of the cone type and those of nocturnal
were mainly rods. The ellipsoid region of both double rods in the nocturnals and large single
cones in the species having both nocturnals and diurnal activity, consist of several mitochondria
arranged in a remarkable radially gradient architecture which accommodates with the specific
function of this region as a focusing device helping to condense light onto the outer segments.
Moreover the principle cone of double cone and single cone of diurnal reptiles possessed a large
oil droplet in the region between the inner segment and outer segment. This droplet is thought to
play a role in filtering light and so doing enhanced contrast reduce glare and lessen chromatic
It is worth to mention that the outer segment of rods in nocturnal reptiles approaches a
length of approximately four folds the length of the inner segments of the same photoreceptors
cells. This character is of a particular interest, since the outer segment is the site of
photopigments and the increase in its length magnifies its ability of light and consequently
accommodate with the night vision.

The structure of retinal photoreceptors
found in most scleral parts of the inner
has been investigated in a variety of
segment, mainly in cones, in amphibians,
vertebrate species (Cohen, 1963 a & b,
reptiles and birds ( Hailman, 1976 & Mac
Braekevelt, 1972, 1975, 1989, 1992, 1994).
Nichol et .al 1978).Synapses of rods and
While some variation is noted between
cones were first described by Dickson &
species, the typical photoreceptor consists
Hollenberg,1971,Borwein & Hollenberg,
of an outer segment, connecting cilium,
inner segment nuclear region with synaptic
Rods and cones are two distinct types
process and paired or double cones occur
of photoreceptors of the retina were first
widely in all groups below the placental
described by Schultze (1867 & 1873) , he
studied both nocturnal and diurnal
marsupials (Braekevelt,1972).
vertebrate species and formulated his
The outer segment of the photore-
duplicity theory.
ceptor lies close to and intimately asso-
ciated with the pigment epithelium ( Hogan,
containing both rods operating maximally
et. al , 1974).
at low light intensities and cones ,operating
The outer and inner segments were
maximally at high insensitive and in colour
connected by an eccentrically positioned
vision (Borwein,1981). Some retinae had
stalk (cilium) ( Fawcett, 1966 ; Borwein &
been reported to contain rods only, e.g. in
Hollenberg, 1973).
rats, but a few cones have been shown to be
Coloured or colourless oil droplets are
present by Hughes (1977).
permanent inclusions of the adult visual cell
Rods and cones appear together in
in some non mammlian species ,They are
primates. The cone inner segment is much

Full Paper (vol.17 paper# 14)

Effect of Systematic Lupus Erythematosus on some Biochemical Parameters in Female Patients The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 17 : 187 ­ 196 Dec.2004
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 -2002

Effect of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus on some Biochemical
Parameters in Female Patients

Eman G.E Helal*, Medhat El- Shafaey**, Hala Rahoma** and
Mervat Abdel- Rahman***

*Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Al- Azhar University (Girls).** Clinical
Immunology and Allergy Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain- Shams University.
***Clinical Pathology Lab., Student Hospital, Cairo University.


It has been noticed that there is an increase in the number of women suffering from SLE.
Most studies confirmed that serum DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) and DHEA sulphate are lower
among patients with SLE than among controls even- during phases of inactive disease so we
performed this study to detect the level of DHEA-S in the female patients with SLE. The overall
results confirm that DHEA treatment was well- tolerated, significantly reduced the number of SLE
flares, and improved patient's global assessment of disease activity. Some serum parameters like
liver and kidney functions were detected. Biochemical analysis showed that there is a significant
increase of total lipids, cholestrol, triglycerides. But insignificant change in serum glucose, urea
nitrogen and uric acid levels were recorded. From the present study three things were concluded.
Firstly, there is a strong relationship between level of DHEA and the progression of SLE. Secondly,
liver activity and kidney functions were not affected by SLE disease.Thirdly, DHEA treatment has a
beneficial effect on female patients. So this study recommended to follow up DHEAS in female
patients and use it in a proper dosage. In addition, further study must be done.

Key Words: SLE, DHEA, Liver functions, Kidney functions.


Systemic lupus erthematosus (SLE) is an
progesterone, cortisone and many other
steroid hormones. Possible therapeutic
characterisitic rash associated with inflam-
applications of DHEA supplementation
mation of connective tissues, particularly
include the prevention and\or treatment of
joints, throughout the body. In autoimmune
heart disease, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis
diseases, the immune system attacks the
and arthritis (Barrett-conner et al., 1986).
body instead of protecting it. Renal,
Several studies have documented that
pulmonary and vascular damage are
serum levels of DHEA and DHEA sulphate
potential problems resulting from SLE
are lower among patients with SLE than
(Kardestuncer and Frumkin, 1997).
among controls even during phases of
DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) is the
inactive disease and that these lower levels
most abundant steroid in the bloodstream
are not explained by corticosteroid therapy
produced mainly in the adrenal glands. It is
(Jungers et al., 1982 and Lahita et al., 1987).
a prohormone that produces other hormones.
The decline in circulating DHEA levels
DHEA converts to estrogens, testosterone,
occuring with aging has been linked to the

Full Paper (vol.17 paper# 15)

I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 -2002

Effect Of L-Cysteine On Blood Picture And Some Serum Parameters In Rats
Exposed To 2 Gauss Electro-Magnetic Field

Mervat Abdel-Rahman
Clinical pathology laboratory, Student hospital, Cairo University, Giza.


investigation of the bio-effects of exposure to 2 gauss electromagnetic field (EMF) on
blood elements, blood glucose, hepatocellular enzymes and bilirubin of mice and their possible
modification by L-cysteine. Methods: the following groups were studied; (1) normal rats treated
with saline; (2) normal rats treated with L-cysteine (18 mg/kg); (3) rats exposed to EMF for 21 days
and treated with the vehicle (saline) during the exposure period; (4) rats exposed to EMF for 21
days and treated with L-cysteine (18 mg/kg orally, 3 times per week) during the exposure period;
(5) rats exposed to EMF for 21 days and treated with the vehicle (saline) during the exposure period
and for 45 days after exposure; (6) rats exposed to EMF for 21 days and treated with L-cysteine (18
mg/kg orally, 3 times per week) during the exposure period and for 45 days after exposure; Results:
in rats exposed to low frequency EMF for 21 days (group2), marked increase in aspartate
aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities in serum was observed.
Plasma bilirubin level was raised. Meanwhile, significant decrease in plasma glucose levels occured
after exposure to EMF. No significant changes were observed in haemoglobin level, red blood cells
or total leucocytic count noted in rats exposed to EMF. The elevations in serum bilirubin, AST and
ALT levels were reduced to near normal values in rats given L-cysteine druing the 21 days of
exposure (group3). On the other hand, in rats examined 45 days after the end of the exposure period
(group 3), no significant alterations were noted as regards bilirubin, AST, ALT and glucose levels
in serum. Conclusions: these results suggest that (1) exposure to low frequency EMF of 50 Hz is
associated with some degree of liver injury reflected in increased leakage of hepatoceular enzymes
into plasma as well as an increase in serum bilirubin; (2) these alterations can be ameliorated by the
administration of L-cysteine, as well as; (3) by limiting exposure to EMF.

Key Words: Electro-magnetic field, liver enzymes, rat, blood picture


In the recent years, there has been
of low frequency EMF has received
considerable research effort undertaken on
considerable interest (Pasquinelli et al., 1993;
the biological effects and potential hazards of
Petrini et al., 1990). It has been suggested
low frequency electric and magnetic fields.
that exposure to low frequency EMF of 75 Hz
and an intensity of 20 Gauss caused an
equipments are being used without earthing,
increase in mouse life span (Pasquinelli et al.,
there exists EMF of 1-3 gauss, because of the
1993), while sub-acute exposure to EMF (128
long extension of electric cables in work
mT 1hour/day for 10 consecutive days)
places, houses, laboratories, etc...
stimulated plasma corticosterone and liver
Studies suggested that EMF may
metallothionein activities in rats (Chater et
influence the physiological processes in
al., 2004). In addition, epidemiological
biological systems. In particular, the effects
studies have implicated EMF exposure with

Full Paper (vol.17 paper# 16)

Bone mineral density in different stages of non The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 17 : 207 ­ 216 Dec.2004
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 -2002
Bone Mineral Density In Different Stages Of Non
Cholestatic Liver Cirrhoses

*Azza Emam. , ** Omer Hossian. And **Sherif Abou Gamrah .

Department of Internal Medicine. **Department of Radio diagnosis,
Ain Shams University.

Hepatic osteodystrophy refers to metabolic Bone abnormalities observed in chronic liver
disease. It is an important complication of chronic liver disease which includes osteoporosis and
the much rare osteomalacia. It is varying from 13% to 70%, depending on the population
studied and the diagnostic criteria used to define bone disease.
The advances in bone densitometry and the development of newer techniques, such as
dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), make it possible to rapidly and precisely quantify
the amount of bone in the relevant fracture sites. DEXA is noninvasive, rapid, accurate, and
safe. So it is the gold standard with which all other technologies are compared.
So in this study, BMD was measured using DEXA technique at 2 sites; antro-posterior
lumbar spines and femoral neck in 30 cirrhotic patients and 10 healthy volunteers as a control
In addition routine laboratory investigations; CBC, ESR, Liver function tests, renal
function tests, serum Na, K, Ca and Phosphorus, urinary 24 h Ca and viral markers; HBVs Ag
and HCV Ab was done and abdominal U/S.
We concluded that liver cirrhosis is a direct and independent risk factor for bone loss
which is mainly in the form of osteoporosis rather than osteomalacia and the degree of bone loss
is related to severity of the liver disease as it worsens as the liver function does. The trabecular
bone is more clearly affected than cortical bone.
So BMD should be measured in cirrhotic patients and management should be started in
osteopenic and osteoporotic patients and follow up should be done.


An important complication of chronic
The role of hepatocellular dysfunction
liver disease is osteodystrophy which
in hepatic osteodystrophy is not clear. The
includes osteoporosis and the much rarer
risk of fracture increases progressively with
osteomalacia (collier et al., 2002). Hepatic
decreasing bone mineral density (bmd), it
osteodystrophy occurs in up to 50% of
increases two to three fold for each standard
patients with chronic liver disease and is
deviation (sd) decrease in bmd (marshal et
mainly due to an imbalance between bone
al., 1996).
formation and bone resorption that results
In recent years, with progress in the
in osteoporosis (crosbie et al., 1996).
therapy of liver cirrhosis and its
Osteoporosis is defined as a
complications, there has been an increase in
progressive systemic skeletal disease
patient survival, as well as in the incidence
characterized by low bone mass and micro
of fractures and other manifestations of
architectural deterioration of bone tissue
metabolic bone disease associated with
with a consequent increase in bone fragility
chronic liver disease (duarte et al., 2001).
and susceptibility to fracture (newton et al.,
For this reason, the management of hepatic
2001). In general, there are secondary
factors such as malabsorption and nutrit-
ional deficiencies that may cause bone
The advances in bone densitometry
changes in chronic liver disease (mehmet et
and the development of newer techniques,
al., 2002).
such as dual energy x-ray absorptiometry

Full Paper (vol.17 paper# 17)

Default Normal Template The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 17 : 217 ­ 231 Dec.2004
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 -2002

Asymptomatic Urinary Tract infection (UTI) among diabetic females

Mona Hosny*, Yasser Soliman*, Ahmed Abdel-Kader*
and Ahmed Mohamed**
*Internal Medicine Department, Ain Shams University
** Medical commission, Ain Shams University

Our study was conducted on 1000 diabetic females of variable ages without symptoms of
UTI. There were both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients.
There were both married and unmarried females in both types of DM.
In addition to 100 normal females, which are age matched with patients group. They
constituted control group.
Prevalence of ASB is significantly higher (P<0.01), by 4-5 folds in diabetic females than
in normal ones. Several risk factors have been identified as glucosuria, proteinuria and duration
of DM, whereas age, duration of marriage and seual activity are not proven to increase
prevalence of ASB in diabetic females in our study. Repeated pregnancy times may be a risk
factor for ASB in type 2 diabetic females (P<0.01). Staph. aureus was present in 54% of
bacteriuric patients (with positive cultures) with either types of DM and E.coli was present in
30.8% of bacteriuric patients with either types of DM. Staph aureus is present in 45.9% of
patients with type 1DM, while in type 2 DM, it was present in 59.1% of patients. E.Coli was
isolated in 41.2% of patients with type 1 DM and it was present in 24.2% of patients with type 2

It is well established that individuals
The presence
with diabetes are at higher risk than their
bacteriuria is most strongly correlated with
non-diabetic counterparts for a variety of
variables consistent with duration of
bacterial infections. High post voidal resi-
diabetes rather than with control of diabetes
dual volumes related to bladder dysfunction
(Zhanel, Nicolle and Marding, 1995).
increase the likelihood of urinary tract
The most common cause of UTI in
infections (Sherita et al., 1999).
men and women with DM is E.Coli
Urinary tract infections can be
(Mansen et al., 1998).
asymptomatic or symptomatic (Gonzalez
In voided urine samples obtained from
and Schaeffer, 1999).
patients with urinary tract symptoms, the
Patients with diabetes generally have
finding of more than 105 organisms of a
a 2-fold to 4-fold increased incidence of
single bacterial species is highly predictive
bacteriuria over patients without diabetes
of infection (Schrier, 2001).
(Ronald and Luduring, 2001).

In contrast with man, a higher preva-
Patients and Methods
lence of ASB has been found in women
In our study, 1000 single or married
with diabetes than in women without the
variable aged females with either types of
disease (Patterson and Androle, 1997).
DM without symptoms of urinary tract
In a study of risks for UTI in diabetic
infection were included.
women, seual intercourse in the preceding

The following cases were excluded
week was the most important risk factor for
from the study: cases with renal
impairment, cases with
Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) was
urinary tract infection, cases with structural
associated with the highest risk among
urinary tract abnormalities, cases with
women with type 2DM (Geerlings et al.,
disturbed immunity or receiving corticost-
eroid therapy and pregnant cases.

Full Paper (vol.17 paper# 18)