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The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 15 :1 14 June 2004
Protective Effect of Allium sativum and Nigella sativa Against
NO-Mediated Alterations in Dimethylhydrazine-
Induced Colon Cancer rats.
El-Sayed H. El-Tamany1, Awatif M. Abd El-Maksoud2, Ehsan H. Hassan3
Abd El-Aziz M. Abd El-Galil4, Shawkia S. El-Sherbiny4
and Ismail M. Abdel-Nabi5
1-Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.
2- Clinical Nutrition Department ,National Nutrition Institute, Cairo, Egypt.
3 Pathology. Departement ,National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Reasearch Institute,
4 Nutrional Biochemistry Department , National Nutrition Institute, , Cairo, Egypt.
5-Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.
Plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO) and -tocopherol as well as catalase activities in colon
and liver tissues were assessed in 1, 2 dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer rats. Five groups
of male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed the experimental diets supplemented with Allium sativum
powder and Nigella sativa seeds (2.5%, 5%) or a mixed dose of both plants (5% of each) for 24
weeks, experimental period. At the fifth week rats were subcutaneously injected with
dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) at a dose of 20mg/kg body weight for 20 weeks.
Another two groups of rats were fed the basal diet for the same period, the first group designed
as negative control group and injected with saline solution while the second group was injected
with DMH at the same dose and designed as positive control group. Colon carcinogenesis was
accompanied by a significant increase in the level of NO as well as catalase activity and
significant decrease in plasma levels of -tocopherol. Only the 5% Allium sativum powder fed
group exhibited a significant decrease in NO level. Administration of Allium sativum powder
and the mixed dose caused significant decrease in colonic and hepatic catalase activities and
significant increase in -tocopherol levels. On the other hand, the effects of Nigella sativa seeds
on the measured parameters were non significant. These results were confirmed by the
histopathological results that showed low incidence of colon tumors in rats fed 5% Allium
sativum powder (17%) and the mixed dose (56%) fed groups. It could be concluded that the
promising effect of garlic in DMH-induced colon cancer rats may be mediated through
modulation of plasma levels of nitric oxide and -tocopherol as well as tissue catalase activity.
Keywords: Colon carcinogenesis, DMH, Histopathology, Allium sativum (garlic), Nigella
sativa, Nitric oxide, -tocopherol, catalase, Rat.
Colon cancer is one of the leading
Thus, the lack of an effective treatment has
causes of cancer morbidity and mortality
underlined the importance of developing a
worldwide (Parkin et al., 1999). Surgical is
better understanding of the role of diet in
the principle method of treatment, but the
preventing colon cancer.
surgical success rate, for patients with
The preventive actions of garlic,
recently diagnosed colon cancer, is less
garlic extracts and its organo-sulfur
than 40% (Bond, 1993). The antitumor
compounds against colon cancer have been
drugs have been found to be toxic to some
demonstrated in animal models (Hatono et
organs in the body (Thabrew et al., 2000).
al., 1996) and in human colon cell lines
Effects Of Candesartan Cilexetil Drug And Allium Sativum On Certain Enzymes And Biochemical Parameters
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 15 :15 29 June 2004
Effects Of Candesartan Cilexetil Drug And Allium Sativum On Certain
Enzymes And Biochemical Parameters
In Hyperlipidemic Mice
Mahmoud R. Mahmoud
Zoology Department, Faculty Of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt
The present study was performed to investigate the possible correlation between the
effects of candesartan cilexetil (3 mg/kg b.w.) and garlic; allium sativum (100 mg/kg b.w.)
alone and in combination on high cholesterol diet (HCD) male mice . Candesartan cilexetil
alone and their combination with garlic were given orally to animals fed on
hypercholesterolemic diet by gavage for 12 weeks . Results of this investigation showed that
animals under high cholesterol diet exhibited some sort of changes in the blood, plasma and
tissue levels of leukocytes,cholesterol, triglyceride and enzymes where they increased
significantly while some decrease exhibited in heart weight, LDH-cholesterol and testosterone
hormone compared with that of the normal diet animals. Candesartan cilexetil garlic or their
combination significantly decreased the plasma and tissue levels of total cholesterol (TC),
triglyceride (TG) , while they increased significantly the levels of high density lipoprotein
cholesterol ( HDL-C). On the contrary, candesartan and candesartan in combination with
garlic decrease WBCs, neutrophils and platelets significantly in compared with that of the
(HCD) animals. This study included the total body and heart weights. Heart weight increased
significantly in candesartan, garlic and their combination treated group. On the other hand,
there were significantly decreases in body weight in candesartan, garlic and their combination
compared with that of the high cholesterol diet treated animals. The effect of candesartan,
garlic and their combination upon serum and liver levels of ALP, AST, ALT and ChE enzymes
were investigated. Serum and liver ALP, AST, ALT and ChE were increased significantly in
candesartan treated group but they decreased markedly in garlic and its combination with
candesartan in serum and liver respectively compared with that of the high cholesterol diet
animals. Candesartan decreased plasma level of testosterone while garlic and its combination
with candesartan increased the testosterone hormone significantly compared with that of the
high cholesterol diet animals. In conclusion, animals given garlic have improved physiological
functions and induced significant causes of antiatherosclerosis effect. Also, these observations
show that garlic is efficacious in lowering blood lipid profils and thereby could maintain
protection with hypertensive drugs.
A number of prospective studies have
studies (Wesley et al.,1999). Many studies
established that the risk of cardiac
investigating the effects of myocardial
morbidity and mortality is directly related
ischemia-reperfusion in the setting of
to the concentration of plasma cholesterol
hypercholesterolemia have focused prim-
(Kannel et al.,1971). Despite the develo-
arly on rabbit models of ischemia alone or
pment of a number of agents that effect-
on ischemia-reperfusion (Golino et al.,
ively reduce serum cholesterol levels in
1987; Tilton et al.,1987). Osborne et al.
patients, coronary arteriosclerosis and
(1987) reported that creatin kinase release
subsequent myocardial infraction still
after 5 hours of regional ischemia was
represent a major health concern in many
significantly greater in rabbits fed a high
Toxic and Teratogenic Effects of Azadirachtin of Neemix-4
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 15 :30 39 June 2004
Toxic and Teratogenic Effects of Azadirachtin of Neemix-4.5 on
Fetuses and Pups of SWR/J Mice
F. M. Abou-Tarboush1 and H. M. El-Ashmaoui2,
1King Saud University, College of Science, Department of Zoology,
2National Research Center, Cell Biology Dept., Giza, Egypt.
Inbred normal adult SWR/J mice were used to evaluate the toxic and teratogenic short-
and long term effects of various dose levels (0.9, 1.8, 3.0, 9.0, 45.0, which represent 1/100,
1/50, 1/30, 1/10, 1/2 LD50, respectively) of azadirachtin of neemix-4.5 ( insecticide product )on
fetuses and pups of pregnant females.
The oral administration of the different dose levels of azadirachtin on days 7-12 of
gestation or on a 80-day period has not produced any morphological or skeletal changes in
fetuses and pups of SWR/J mice. As the pharmacokinetics of azadirachtin and its bioavailability
to the fetus are unknown, the essentially negative results obtained in the present study may be
due either to the lack of toxic potential or to lack of fetal exposure.
Key Word : Neemix-4.5, Azadirachtin, Teratogenicity, Fetotoxicity SWR/J mice.
Control of insect pests generally has been
many key crop pests, and has proved to be
achieved with broad-spectrum synthetic
one of the most promising plant ingredients
insecticides. However, there are many
for integrated pest management at the
present time (Jacobson, 1989 ; Rembold,
1989 ; Schmutterer, 1990 ; Isam, 1999 ;
insecticides including pest resistance and
Walter, 1999 ; Liang et al., 2003). It
negative impacts on nontarget organisms
displays an array of effects on insects,
(Magaro and Edelson, 1990 ; Leskovar and
acting inter alia, as a phago-and oviposition
Boales, 1996). Moreover, increasing
deterrent, repellent, antifeedant, growth
documentation of negative environmental
retardant, molting inhibitor, sterilant and
and health impact of synthetic toxic
preventing insect larvae from developing
into adults (Schmutterer, 1990 ; Mordue
government regulation of pesticides have
and Blackwell, 1993 ; Schmutterer, 1995).
resulted in renewed interests in the
Although azadirachtin has low acute
development and use of botanical pest
toxicity in mammalian species, with LD50
management products (Ascher, 1993; Liang
greater than 5000 mg/kg in the rat (Raizada
et al., 2003).
et al., 2001), the possibility of future
hazards should not be ignored (Anon,
containing azadirachtin that was derived
1992). As potential use of crude neem oil as
from extracts of neem tree, Azadirachta
an antifertility agent has been claimed (Lal
indica A. Juss, have played a important role
et al., 1986), a toxicological safety
in crop protection (Liang et al., 2003).
assessment is required for azadirachtin in
Azadirachtin, a very complex tetranortriter-
order to establish its potential human use.
penoids, has been effectively used against
In acute and chronic studies, several
more than 400 species of insects, including
workers have shown aderse effects of neem
Chemoprevention of Barley and Sage against acrylamide-Induced genotoxic, biochemical and histopathological alterations in rats
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 15 : 40 56 June 2004
Chemoprevention of Barley and Sage against acrylamide-Induced
genotoxic, biochemical and histopathological alterations in rats
Sekena, H. Abd El-Aziem1, Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahab2, Mahmoud A. M3Azza M.
Hassan 4 and Karima, F. Mahrous1
1Department of Cell Biololgy, 2Department of Food Toxicology & Contaminants National
Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. and 3Department of Pathology. Faculty of Vet. Med.
Cairo Univ. Egypt and 4Forensic Medicine & Toxicology Department, Faculty of Medicine for
girls, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.
Acrylamide (ACR) has recently been found in fried and backed foods, suggesting
widespread public exposure. ACR is an industrial chemical material that causes neurotoxicity in
humans and was designated as a probable human carcinogen by IARC and USEPA. The aim of
the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of barley and sage against ACR
mutagenicity and biochemical and histopathological changes in rats. Forty mature male rats
were divided into eight groups and were fed barley and/or sage-supplemented diet (5%) with or
without ACR (50 mg/kg b.w). The biochemical results revealed that ACR increased Alanine
amino transferase (ALT), Aspartate amino transferase (AST), triglycerides (TG), cholesterol
and uric acid. Micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes and chromosomal aberrations in
somatic and germ cells were significantly increased in ACR-treated animals. Severe
pathological lesions included testicular degeneration, oedema, spermatid giant cells formation
and necrosis of spermatid cells were found in the testis of ACR-treated group. The kidney of
this group showed degenerative changes. Cotreatment with barley and/or Sage and ACR
resulted in a significant improvement in all the parameters tested. It could be concluded that
these plants contain antioxidant compounds and may be useful when add as food additive to the
food cooked on a higher temperature.
Key words: Acrylamide, Barley, Sage, chromosomal aberrations, kidney, testis.
In the year 2002 the Swedish National
al., 1986). ACR is regarded as a potential
Food Authority reported the presence of
mutagen based on experimental evidence
elevated levels of acrylamide (ACR) in
that it can bind to DNA (Sega, 1990). ACR
certain types of food processed at high
undergoes biotransformation by conjuga-
temperature. Since then ACR has been
tion with glutathione (Miller, 1982) or
found in a lot of cooked and heat-processed
reduction by microsomal cytochrome P-450
foods in other countries, including
(Anzenbacher and Anzenbacherova, 2001).
Netherlands, Norway, Switzerland, United
The major metabolite of ACR, glycidamide
States, United Kingdom (Shelby, 2004),
is an epoxide that may be more critical for
and Egypt. Human exposed to ACR
carcinogenic and genotoxic properties in
through the consumption of heat-cooked
animals than the parent compound
food such as potato crisps, chips, cocktail
(Segerback et al., 1995).
snacks and gingerbread. Chronic ACR
ACR exposure in hamsters caused
exposure has been associated with incre-
ased incidence of mesothelioma, cancer of
central nervous system, thyroid gland and
(Sakamoto et al., 1988). Reduced sperm
other endocrine glands, mammary glands
motility and impaired fertility have also
and reproductive tracts in rats (Johnson et
been reported in treated mice and rats
Effect Of Permethrin, Pirimiphos Methyl And Bendiocarb On The Osmotic Resistance Of Rat Erythrocytes
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 15 :57 64 June 2004
Effect Of Permethrin, Pirimiphos Methyl And Bendiocarb On The Osmotic
Resistance Of Rat Erythrocytes
Salwa A.Metwally and Hala M. Fawzy
National Organization For Drug Control And Research, Cairo
Environmental pollution by insecticides is one of the most important problems in the
world. Some of the pesticides were found to exert carcinogenic, teratogenic and/or mutagenic
effects even following normal agricultural use (U.S.Geological Survey, 1997). On the other
hand residues from insecticides, herbicides and insect growth hormones are known to represent
the most common food contaminants particularly in developing countries. Thus the wide spread
use of insecticides in agriculture stimulated our interest for studying their possible toxic
effect(s) in man and animals.
The aim of the present work was to study the effect of short term (for 2 weeks) oral daily
feeding with diet containing 10 times the human maximum acceptable daily intake (a
concentration that may be faced by human) of either permethrin, pirimiphos-methyl or
bendiocarb on osmotic fragility of rat erythrocytes.
Sprague Dawley male rats were divided into four groups, each consists of 10 animals.
Animals of each group were fed either normal diet (control group), permethrin (21.7 ppm),
pirimiphos-methyl (4.4 ppm) or bendiocarb (2.0 ppm) for 2 weeks. Twenty four hours later,
blood samples were withdrawn and osmotic fragility was determined. The obtained results
indicated that permethrin, pirimiphos-methyl and bendiocarb increase the osmotic fragility.
The use of pesticides has been largely
toxins in air we breathe, food we eat and
expanded during the last fifty years. The
water we drink.
WHO (1992), reported that 3 million
Among the potent synthetic insect-
pesticide poisoning cases occurred annually
icides that have been increasingly employed
and resulted in 220 000 deaths allover the
in recent years are synthetic pyrethroids,
world. In the developing countries the
situation is worse, since higher proportions
Pyrethroids are known to increase relative
of pesticides poisoning and deaths
liver weight, to change haematocrite and
occurred. The reasons behind this include,
mean corpuscular volume, to induce
inadequate occupational safety standards
chromosomal aberrations (Ismael and
and insufficient knowledge of pesticide
Lithfield, 1988 and Institoris et al., 1999a
hazards. Some pesticides are carcinogenic,
and b), to suppress erythropiosis and
most are teratogenic, and others are
hemoglobin synthesis and to increase
mutagenic. All are attributed to normal
number of leukocytes (Tos- Luty, et al.,
agriculture use (U.S.Geological Survey,
2001). Pyrethroids were also reported to
1997). So, it is safe to assume that sooner or
cause slight activation of cytochrome P 450
later higher percentages of our people
1A and 2B mediated reactions (Kostka et
(especially in developing countries) will
al., 1997 and Moresseau et al., 1999) and to
suffer from some serious forms of diseases
act as a tumor promotor at non-hepatotoxic
like cancer and kidney failure (Cheraskin,
doses (Hemming et al., 1993). They may
2000). These diseases will be resulted from
inhibit the G2 phase in the cell cycle and
Retinol and Alpha-Tocopherol Levels Among
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 15 :65 71 June 2004
Retinol and Alpha-Tocopherol Levels Among
Awatif M. Abd El Maksoud*, Asmaa M. Abd Allah*, Waleed Massoud**,
Mervat A. Ismail*.
*Clinical Nutrition Department, National Nutrition Institute.
**Nephrology Department ,Ahmed Maher Teaching Hospital.
Plasma retinol, alpha tocopherol, total cholesterol and triglycerides were measured in 40
patients aged 27-65 years, under regular hemodialysis (HD) for 1.8-13 years at Ahmed Maher
teaching Hospital and in 28 healthy age and sex matched control. Predialysis and postdialysis
measurements were also, done for a subset of 13 hemodialytic patients.
Among hemodialytic patients ,all values ( Plasma retinol ,alpha- tocopherol, total cholesterol
and triglycerides )were significantly higher ( p < 0.05 ) with respect to healthy control .The ratio
of retinol to total cholesterol was significantly higher , while alpha-tocopherol to total
cholesterol ratio was insignificant .In almost all hemodialytic patients, plasma retinol was at
toxic level (> 100 ug /dl) except for one patient .
On the other hand ,alpha-tocopherol level in hemodialytic patients was ranged between
deficiency (<650 ug/dl ) in about 6 (15%) of them , marginal level (650-860 ug/dl ) at 3 ( 8% )
, while 9 (23%) had normal level (860-1080ug/ dl) and the rest 22 (54% ) were in the optimum
level (> 1080 ug/dl). Comparing predialysis and postdialysis measurements , the hemodialytic
patients showed non significant difference concerning retinol level , while alpha tocopherol was
significantly decreased in postdialytic state .In conclusion ; further studies are needed to
answer, if hemodialytic patients are at risk for symptomatic vitamin A toxicity?. Even with
normal or low plasma vitamin E, it is needed as an antioxidant accessory therapy in
Keywords: hemodialysis , retinol , alpha-tocopherol , triglycerides total cholesterol .
Contributions of the kidney to vitamin A
vitamin A /RBP complex would easily bind
to tissues with RBP receptors , causing
Protein (RBP) metabolism, hepatic release
toxic effects. In contrast, features of
of retinol and retinoic acid synthesis vitamin A toxicity in a skin examination of
( Chazot and Kopple,1997 ) .Chronic renal
hemodialysis (HD) patients was not found
failure patients, have elevated plasma
although, they had elevated serum levels of
concentrations of total vitamin A and RBP-
RBP and retinol (Chazot and Kopple,2004).
bound vitamin A. Elevated vitamin A is
Vitamin E is the most important
considered to be due to increased plasma
defense against peroxidation of unsaturated
RBP ,and have no clinical significance as
lipids in cells and of plasma lipoproteins.
long as the RBP/vit A ratio is normal The normal concentrations of vitamin E are
( Mydlik ,1991 ) .
inadequate to cover the need for protection
Chronic renal failure patients, who
in HD patients ( Usberti ,et al. 2002 ). In
had no clinical features of vitamin A
HD patients there was a decrease in
toxicity, have increased liver and skin
concentration of red blood cell (RBC)
vitamin A content. In the absence of
tocopherol and there was marked decrease
increased serum prealbumin,an excess of
in lipid peroxidation in patients treated with
Effect of Androgen and Schistosomicide In Murine Schistomiasis Mansoni: An Experimental Study
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 15 :72 82 June 2004
Effect of Androgen and Schistosomicide In Murine Schistomiasis
Mansoni: An Experimental Study
Nabil Abdel Mageed (M.D.)*; Ehsan Hassan (M.D.) **, Nagwa M. Abdel Wahab
(Ph.D.) *** and Azza Hegazy (M.D.) **
Dermatology Department *, Pathology Department**, Biostatistics and
Public Health Department ***.
National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute (NHTMRI)
Background: Impotence is a consistent inability to sustain an erection sufficient for
sexual intercourse. Testosterone administration in men with liver cirrhosis improves the sense of
well-being, increase serum proteins and reduces edema without serious adverse effects. Oral,
alkylated forms of testosterone can create a situation of liver toxicity. There is little evidence
that other methods of administration cause liver dysfunction. Most doctors be indecisive on
prescribing androgen preparations in patients with liver disease, so this work was designed to
study the effect of androgen replacement (injectable form) on the murine diseased liver, and
subsequently whether it can be used safely in men with chronic liver disease or not.
Objective: To evaluate the effect of exogenous injectable androgen and praziquantel on
the diseased liver of mice.
Setting: National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute (NHTMRI).
Materials and methods: Forty male mouse (weighing 25-30 g) were infested
subcutaneously with Schistosoma mansoni (100 cercariae/animal), and then they were divided
into four groups. Mice in the first group were infected only and used as infected control group.
Mice of group II and IV were given the Schistosomicide, praziquantel in a dose of
0.3mg/mouse. Androgen (Sustanon) was injected intramuscularly in a dose of 0.125 mg/mouse,
(three doses, 3 weeks apart) in group III and IV. At the end of the trial all animals were then
sacrificed to study histopathologically the possible effects of androgen on the liver tissue. Liver
function tests were done in animals of group I, III, and IV, first prior to study and finally by the
end of study. Results of assayed liver function tests and histopathological examination were
tested for statistical significant association.
Results: there were marked elevation of the liver enzymes in mice of group IV compared
to the corresponding control (p<0.01) and mice of the third group (p<0.01), which reflect
deterioration of hepatic function in those mice received the antibilharzial drug praziquantel. On
the other hand there was statistical difference between control group (group I) and androgen
treated group III (P < 0.05). Histological examination of liver sections of mice in all groups
revealed the presence of typical bilharzial granulomas. The mean diameter of bilharzial
granulomas clearly dropped to 283.20 micrometer in group II compared to 392.55 in
corresponding control. The difference between these two groups was statistically significant (p
= 0.000). ). In group III there was no statistical difference in the number of egg granulomas (P>
0.05) compared to group I. There was a reduction of granulomas diameter in group III and IV
(animals injected with androgen) in comparison to group I (P>0.05 and P<0.01) respectively.
Also comparison between the four groups as regards the type of bilharzial granulomas, it is
clearly evident that the predominant type of granulomas in the androgen treated groups is the
cellular type (38% and 57.1%) in group III and IV respectively and this may reflect the possible
beneficial effect of androgen on the diseased liver.
Biochemical and histopathological studies on the influence of aqueous extract of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum graecum) on
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 15 :83 94 June 2004
Biochemical and histopathological studies on the influence of aqueous
extract of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum graecum) on
alloxan diabetic male rats.
Enas A. M. Khalil
National Organization For Drug Control And Research
Diabetes and the related complications continue to be a major medical problem in Egypt.
In spite of the warning of adaptation for regime diet, practicing exercise and administering
The toxic side effects, contraindication and sometimes diminutions in response after
prolonged use of antidiabetic drugs encouraged to search for therapeutic herbal remedies for
safety, efficacy and economy . Diabetes is manifested by multiple disturbances in the metabolic
processes of the body, which are attributed to an insufficient supply of insulin. Many plants
were known for their activity as antidiabetic agents
This investigation aims to clarify the role of fenugreek seed aqueous extract in its
therapeutic dose on beta cells number, blood glucose and plasma insulin levels in alloxan
diabetic rats. Also to illustrate the functional biochemical changes and the associated
histopathological alternations in pancreas, liver, kidney, aorta and testes as influenced by
fenugreek and alloxan induced diabetes for 4-weeks of treatment.
24 adult male albino rats were divided into four groups, control, diabetic, diabetic rats
treated with 0.1mg/kg B.W. of fenugreek seed aqueous extract and 0.1mg/kgB.W. fenugreek
treated group for 4-weeks.The results indicated that, in the diabetic state significant increase in
plasma glucose accompanied by significant reduction in plasma insulin and beta cells number.
Significant increase in serum AST, ALT and ALP associated with dilatation and severe
congestion of central vein and sinusoids, vacuolization and necrotic areas. Inflammatory area
around portal tract. Significant increase in serum urea and creatinine accompanied by atrophy of
most glomerular tuft, others displaying swelling and hyperemia. Diffuse extravagations of red
blood cell between the degenerated renal tubules. Dilatation and severe congestion of blood
vessels. Dilated convoluted tubules, contain hyaline casts in their lumens were observed.
Significant increase in serum total cholesterol and triglycerides accompanied by degenerative
changes in aorta and formation of medial calcinosis in some cases, significant decrease in serum
testosterone levels associated by germ cells depletion as well as sloughing and degeneration of
In conclusion, fenugreek seeds exhibited antioxidant property could ameliorate the
alternations induced in diabetes.
This investigation recommended that higher concentrations of debitterized fenugreek
seeds may double the regeneration of beta cells in pancreas, further studies would be done in
Fenugreek seed aqueous extract exhibited antioxidant property which ameliorated the
biochemical and histopathological alternation induced by alloxan.
In conclusion, higher concentrations of debitterized fenugreek seeds can regenerate beta
cells in pancreas; further studies would be done in mammals.
respiratory tract, bronchitis, pellagra and
Foenum Graecum) L.[Fam.Fabaceae]. It
eczema (Blumenthal et al,2000).
used for thousands of years to reduce blood
Many studies have shown that the
sugar , increase lactation , stomach ulcers,
fenugreek seeds exhibit anti diabetic action
appetite loss, Fever, catarrh of the
(Sharma et al,1996), hypolipidaemic effect
Light and electron microscopic studies on lung and myocardium of the mice fetuses maternally treated with monosodium glutamate
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 15 :95 117 June 2004
Light and electron microscopic studies on lung and myocardium of the
mice fetuses maternally treated with monosodium glutamate and role
of vitamin E against toxicity
Aleya Ahmed Sakr
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University
The lung and myocardium of fetal mice were used in the present investigation as a model
to evaluate the possible effect of monosodium glutamate as one of the flavor food additives.
Vitamin E was also used as one of the antioxidant agents against wide range of cellular damage.
In this study, light microscopic examination revealed that monosodium glutamate caused
narrowing of the lung airways, thickening of the alveolar walls and collapsing of the alveoli.
The cardiac muscles showed severe atrophy and abundance of blood capillaries. The
ultrastructure studies revealed remarkable damage of type I and type II pneumocytes as well as
the endothelial cells. Severely degenerated alveolar areas and accumulated collagen bundles
were detected in the alveolar wall. The ultrastructure of the fetal myocardium revealed severe
atrophy and destruction of cardiac muscle fibers. Some of these fibers tend to accumulate
around blood capillaries which lined by attenuated endothelium. Numerous fibroblasts,
fibrillary network, collagen and macrophages were obvious in the myocardium of these fetuses.
Light and ultrastructural results showed that the treatment of pregnant mice with vitamin E
leads to apparent repair of the lung tissues that may suggest a remarkable efficacy of this
vitamin against pulmonary damage. On the other hand, the protective effect of vitamin E on the
fetal myocardium was weak.
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a well-
known flavor enhancer used in both
Alzheimer's, Huntigton's and Parkinson's
Western and Eastern cuisines. It is
diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
responsible for the delicious taste, and it is
may be mediated by excessive activation of
incorporated into a large number of solid
glutamate receptors (Gill et al., 2000). In
and liquid foods. Experimental studies have
addition, neonatal MSG treatment is known
established that the presence of added MSG
to cause neuronal cell death, dendritic
in foods influences palatability and
hypertrophy (Gonzalez-Burgos et al.,
preference (Bellisle, 1998).
2001), arcuate nucleus damage and energy
Although MSG as a food additive was
balance alteration (Schoelch et al., 2002).
reported to have toxic effects in different
Moreover, MSG has been shown to alter
organs of human and animals, adults and
fetuses (Yu et al., 1997; Horio, 2000 and
neonatally treated rats. It causes marked
Schoelch et al., 2002), MSG remains one of
reduction in pituitary, thyroid, adrenal,
the most studied materials in the world food
gonadal and prostate weights (Dolnikoff et
al., 1988; Tokarev and Jezova, 2000).
Glutamate receptors are present in the
Less is known about glutamate
central nervous system as the major
receptors outside the central nervous
mediators of excitatory neurotransmission
system. Recent observations suggest that
and excitotoxicty. Neural injury associated
several subtypes of glutamate receptors are
with trauma, stroke, epilepsy, and many
widely distributed in peripheral tissues.
Evaluation of the hepatoprotective activity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves in male albino rats
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 15 :118 123 June 2004
Evaluation of the hepatoprotective activity of an aqueous extract of
olive leaves in male albino rats
Enas A. M. Khalil
National Organization For Drug Control And Research
Olive leaf extract is used for centuries in treatment of various medical purposes. This
investigation aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves
against overdose paracetamol .
18 rats were divided into three groups, control , 0.5 gm/kg B.W. intrapereitoneally (i. p.)
paracetamol treated group and rats were given 2.5 gm /kg BW i. p. of olive leaf aqueous extract
for three consecutive days prior to the administration of paracetamol.
The results indicated that treatment with paracetamol caused a marked significant increase
in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST),serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT)and alkaline
phosphatase (ALP) accompanied by severe congestion of central and hepatic portal veins,
vacuolization and ballooning also, a lot of pyknotic nuclei were detected with many small
necrotic areas of hepatocytes. Meanwhile group treated by olive leaf extract followed by
paracetamol displayed significant reduction in serum (AST),(ALT)and (ALP)associated with
nearly normal hepatocyte architecture.
In conclusion, an aqueous extract of olive leaves has antioxidant property could protect
against liver damage occurred by overdose paracetamol in male albino rats.
Olive leaf extract is traditionally used
enoid derivatives, namely (oleanolic acid ,
to relieve fevers, malaria and in the
ursolic acid ,uvaol and methyle maslinate)
treatment of mild to moderate hypertension
(Somova, et al,2004) and several types of
(Weiss, 1988). More recently, it was found
flavonoids (e.g. rutin, apigenin and luteolin)
that olive leaf extract lowers blood pressure
(e.g. systolic and diastolic) and dilate the
(Buttar et al, 1976) reported that
coronary arteries surrounding the heart
hepatocellular damage and impaired liver
( Petokov and Manolov, 1972 & Khyyal, et
function ,occurred following administration
al., 2002 ), inhibits the oxidation of LDL
of single doses of 0.5and 1gm /kgB.W. of
and the development of atherosclerosis
paracetamol in rats.
(Visioli and Galli, 1994 & Somova et al,
This investigation aims to evaluate the
2003),has antibacterial activity (Fleming
hepatoprotective activity of an aqueous
et al,1973), antimicrobial effect (Markin, et
extract of olive leaves against overdose
al, 2003), antiviral properties (Heinze et al,
1975), reduces blood sugar (Peirce, 1999),
enhances the immune system (Kubo, et al,
Materials and Methods
1985), has hypouricemia effect (Departe-
ment of Pharmacology and Toxicology,
Society of Pharmaceutical Industries of
Olive leaves were obtained from the
Tunis, 1994), has antidiarrhea effect (Duke,
trees cultivated in the front of Alexandria
et al, 2002) can provide effective and cheap
Library. The leaves were dried and well
source to treat hypertention ,complicated by
ground. 200ml of boiling distilled water
stenocardia and cardiac failure (Somova et
were added to 7g powder olive leaves, left
for 10 minutes and filtered .The filtrate
Olive leaf extract has a wide number of
were dried in an incubator at 35-40c° .The
constituents, including 4types of triterp-
residue was given to rats in a dose
Use of Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Insufficiency after Cardiac Surgery
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 15 :124 131 June 2004
Use of Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in Acute Respiratory
Insufficiency after Cardiac Surgery
Mohamed Abdel Rahman Salem
Anesthesia Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menofyia University.
Background: Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) using bilevel positive
airway pressure (BiPAP) ventilation is a safe and effective mean of improving gas exchange in
many types of respiratory failure. The results of application of NIPPV to patients who had
cardiac surgery and developed respiratory failure after extubation still to be investigated.
Aim of work: To compare the efficacy of NIPPV delivered through a face mask with the
efficacy of conventional mechanical ventilation (CV) delivered through an endotracheal tube
and investigates its hemodynamic effects in this group of patients.
Materials and Methods: NIPPV and CV were applied to twenty four patients in two groups
who had open heart surgery and suffered from severe respiratory deterioration after tracheal
extubation. Respiratory and invasive hemodynamic parameters were measured before starting
ventilation, 1, 6, 12 hours, and before and after weaning of ventilation and incidence of
ventilatory complications were recorded.
Results: Respiratory parameters improved significantly in patients in both groups after one
hour but one patient was intubated in NIPPV group. There were no significant differences
between the two groups as regards the hemodynamics and respiratory parameters. Respiratory
complications and infection were not noticed in NIPPV group during the study.
Conclusion: NIPPV is considered an effective method of treating patients with acute
respiratory insufficiency after cardiac surgery with minimal effects on respiratory and
hemodynamic parameters. It reduces the respiratory complications and infection during
Although mechanical ventilation with
exchange in patients with many types of
endotracheal intubation is a life saving
acute respiratory failure . In patients with
method in cases of respiratory failure, there
acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive
has been a search for methods which ensure
pulmonary disease (COPD) and hyper-
sufficient respiration without intubation.
capnic respiratory failure, adding noninv-
Complications of intubation and mecha-
asive ventilation to standard therapy decree-
nical ventilation include barotrauma, nosoc-
ased the need for endotracheal intubation
omial pneumonia, sinusitis, and psychol-
and reduced mortality . Similarly, nonin-
ogical problems. Valvular surgery and
vasive continuous positive airway pressure
coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
was effective in patients with cardiogenic
surgery with the use of mammary arteries
pulmonary edema, particularly those with
are associated with alteration of lung
hypercapnia [6, 7]. In various forms of acute
function parameters .
hypoxemic respiratory failure (pneumonia,
Application of noninvasive positive
congestive heart failure, and chest-wall
pressure ventilation (NIPPV) at different
impairment), this therapy slightly decreased
levels to inspiration and expiration using
the rate of tracheal intubation and improved
face or nose masks has reduced the
survival . While NIPPV is frequently used
necessity of endotracheal intubation . It is
in the treatment of patients with acute
a safe and effective mean of improving gas
respiratory failure, little is known about its