A Correlative Study of Angiogenesis Extent and Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 with Upgrading and Myometrial Invasion The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 14 : 1- 10 March 2004

1687 - 2002

A Correlative Study of Angiogenesis Extent and Expression of Matrix
Metalloproteinase-9 with Upgrading and Myometrial Invasion in
Endometrial Endometrioid Carcinoma

Ahmed H. Abdel-Rahman* - Ahmed S. Salem * - Hanan Abdel Hamid Soliman** -
Khaled Z. El-Sheikha ***- Amer A.S.***- Hassanin M.S.***- Maarof E.A.***

Department of Pathology, Al-Azhar University (Assuit)*
Department of Pathology, Cairo University**
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Al-Azhar University (Cairo)***

Changes in angiogenesis and expression of extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes have
been substantiated during tumor changeover and progression. This study was carried out on 60
retrospective endometrial endometrioid carcinoma (EEC) cases in addition to 15 normal
endometrial biopsies as controls. EEC cases were grouped according to both histological grade
(G), from G1 to G3, and the depth of myometrial (M) invasion, from M1 to M3. The study
investigated all cases immunohistochemically to determine their microvessel number and the
expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and showed significantly high counts in
EEC as a whole over the control endometria (P < 0.001). Moreover counts of the G1 group
overlapped those of the control endometra, increased significantly (P < 0.01) in the G2 and even
more in the G3 group. G3 cases, in particular, displayed most microvessels widely scattered in
the tumor tissue, in close association with tumor cells and as winding and arborized tubes, often
dilated in microaneurysmatic segments. The counts also increased in M2 and M3 (P < 0.001) while
those of the M1 group overlapped the counts of control endometria. Expression of MMP-9,
evaluated as percentages of positive cases, revealed that the overall EEC cases gave a significant
increase (P < 0.01) over the normal control endometria. Also, the frequencies of expression
were significantly increased with the histologic grade (P = 0.01) and with the depth of
myometrial invasion (P = 0.08). The increases for MMP-9 were more evident on transition from
G2 to G3 than from G1 to G2. The relationship to the depth of invasion revealed that the
increases for MMP-9 were found at each depth, mostly on transition from M2 to M3. By
contrast, only two of the control biopsies (13.5%) expressed few MMP-9. In EEC, MMP-9, as
well, was, expressed by the host stromal cells.
These data suggest that angiogenesis and degradation of extracellular matrix occur
simultaneously with EEC upgrading and advancing depth of invasion. Also, they suggest that
EEC cells and some host stromal cell populations cooperate in the tumor progression.
Key words: Angiogenesis, Matrix metalloproteinase-9, Endometrial neoplasms,
Endometrioid carcinoma, Tumor invasion, Tumor progression.


Angiogenesis; the formation of new
the tumor cells into and through the
blood microvessels, is an obligatory event
adjacent matrix(4). The new microvessels
connected with tumor growth invasion and
permit metastases because an expanding
endothelial surface increases opportunities
invasive and metastatic tumors need more
for tumor cells to enter the circulation(5).
The additional events involved in
microvessel sprouts secrete important
tumor progression comprise the secretion of
paracrine growth factors for tumor cells(3)
matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The
as well as several extracellular matrix-
MMP family plays an important role in the
degrading enzymes which allow spread of
proteolysis of various components of

Full Paper (vol.14 paper# 1)

Comparative analysis of the protective effect of melatonin and Cleome droserifolia extract on antioxidant status of diabetic r The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 14 : 11 - 25 March 2004

1687 - 2002

Comparative analysis of the protective effect of melatonin and Cleome
droserifolia extract on antioxidant status of diabetic rats

Nahla S. El-Shenawy and Ismail M. Abdel-Nabi
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.
( ismail_nabi@excite.com )

The present study was carried out to compare the antihyperglycemic effects of melatonin
and extract of Cleome droserifolia separately or in combination on the antioxidant defense
system of diabetic rats. Melatonin (10 mg kg-1) and C. droserifolia (0.045 g kg-1day-1) were
given i.p. after induction of diabetes with alloxan (110 mg kg-1). Administration of alloxan to
rats resulted hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, reduced thyroid hormone levels and decreased
body weight. These changes were accompanied with significant decrease in serum total protein,
nitric oxide (NO), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), liver glutathione (GSH) level and catalase
activity (CAT) of diabetic rats. Serum protein level of the melatonin or extract groups did not
differ significantly during the period of the study as compared with the diabetic group, while it
returned to the normal level in the case of combined-exposure. Melatonin increased the levels
and activities of antioxidant markers including total protein, GSH, catalase and NO as compared
with diabetic group. Melatonin and crude extract of C. droserifolia caused a significant decrease
in liver tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Furthermore, treatment of diabetic rats with
crude extract or its combination with melatonin had more potent effect on liver GSH level,
insulin, T3, T4 and T3/T4 ratio than treatment with melatonin only. C. droserifolia was found to
be less effective on CAT levels in liver than melatonin. TAC had positive correlation with GSH
and CAT, while it had negative correlation with MDA. The present results confirmed that
diabetes increased oxidative stress in liver and indicated the role of melatonin in combating the
oxidative stress via its free radical-scavenging and antioxidant properties. Also, crude extract
prevented any diabetic complications by reducing oxidative stress and protected rats from
oxidative damage. Considering the much lower concentration of melatonin compared with
extract, melatonin seems to be more potent antioxidant. Concomitant exposure to melatonin
potentiates crude extract as antihyperglycemic effect on diabetic rats.

Keywords: Cleome droserifolia, anti-hypergycemic, melatonin, antioxidant, thyroid hormones, rat.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic
of reducing saccharides and formation of
metabolic condition characterized by disor-
adducts with proteins. Antioxidant levels in
der of glucose homeostasis. Numerous
the blood and tissues are important factors
experimental and clinical observations have
of sensitivity of individual tissues to
indicated that hyperglycemia may directly
oxidation stress (uracková, 1998). There
or indirectly contribute to excess formation
are different classifications of antioxidants
of free radicals (FR) (Feillet-Coudray et al.,
according to their mode of action; Chapple
1999 and Ceriello, 2003) and decreased
(1997) and Bonnefont-Rousselot et al.
activity of antioxidant defense systems
(2000) differentiated them into three main
(uracková, 1999). Increased formation of
groups. i) Preventative antioxidants that
FR in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus
prevent the formation of new reactive
can be a risk factor of the disease. It occurs
oxygen species (ROS) as caeruloplasmin,
as a result of two processes: i) decreased
metallothioniene, albumin, myoglobin, ferr-
activity of the body antioxidant systems
itin and transferrin. ii) Scavenging antiox-
(Muchová et al., 1999). ii) auto-oxidation
idants which remove ROS once formed,

Full Paper (vol.14 paper# 2)

Histological, Immunohistochemical and clinical study of HEPATIC immune response in CHRONIC hepatitis C The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 14 : 26 -33 March 2004

1687 - 2002

Histological, Immunohistochemical and clinical study of HEPATIC immune
response in CHRONIC hepatitis C

Aboushady MA, Algyoushy AF, Elbaz TZ, Saleh SA and Ewees IE.
From the Departments of Internal Medicine, Histology and Clinical Pathology;
Faculty of Medicine, AlAzhar University


The factors that determine persistence or clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV)
infection are poorly understood. Information in this area may lead to better
understanding of the immune response against HCV infection. Such understanding can
support the goal of development of a broad based cellular and humoral immune
response to HCV which may be important for eradication of infection.
In the present study, needle biopsy specimens from hepatitis C virus infected patients were
prepared for histological, histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Patient history,
full clinical examination and biochemical investigations were recorded.
Primary and secondary lymphoid follicles were evident in ABOUT 50% of the biopsies.
Because CD4(+) T- helper (T-h) lymphocytes provide help for humoral immunity, these cells
were demonstrated in the liver biopsies by immunohistochemical methods. Positive
fluorescence representing CD3(+)/CD4(+) T-h was vigorous in liver residing lymph follicles.
To test the possibility of T-h proliferation due to autoimmune reaction, the serum of
patients was tested for the presence of antimitochondrial, antismooth muscle and antinuclear
antibodies by immunohistochemical method. Analysis of the results eliminated the autoimmune
response leaving the possibility of antiviral response.
Histological examination indicated bile duct injury in areas occupied by secondary
follicles. This may indicate that viral core proteins, with antigenic properties that elucidate
immune response, may reach the portal area, in which the follicles are formed, via the bile
canaliculi to the bile duct where antigen antibody complex is phagocytosed leading to bile duct
injury. Unlike the case of patients who did not show follicles in their liver biopsy, those
showing secondary follicles did not show liver cirrhosis or high grade fibrosis suggesting
immune protection. Moreover, the incidence of secondary follicles in females was higher than
males suggesting sex-dependent immune response. The present study calls for more
investigation towards the understanding of the possible immunity and vaccination against virus
C hepatitis which may lead to eradication of its infection.


Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the main
Lefkowitch et al. 1993, Banner et al., 1995,
cause of non-A, non-B hepatitis around the
Freni et al., 1995, Gerber 1995). Such
world (Gerber 1995). It frequently leads to
lymphoid follicles are also observed in
chronic hepatitis which may progress to
autoimmune hepatitis (Bach et al., 1992,
cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
Scheuer et al ., 1992). The demonstration of
Characteristic, although not pathognomo-
lymphoid aggregates, bile duct lesion, intr-
nic, changes in chronic hepatitis C include
aportal lymphocyte infiltration, increa-sed
bile duct damage (lefkowitch et al., 1993,
adhesion molecule expression and augmen-
Freni et al., 1995 Gerber 1995, Goodman
ted cytokine release in HCV patients clearly
and Ishak, 1995), and lymphoid follicles
emphasizes the involvement of immune-
and/ or aggregates (Bach et al., 1992
mediated reaction in the development of

Full Paper (vol.14 paper# 3)

Immuno-histochemical study of the expression of Bcl-2 in the Leydig's interstitial cells and primary spermatocyte cells of adu T
he Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 14 : 34 - 44 March 2004

1687 - 2002

Immuno-histochemical study of the expression of Bcl-2 in the Leydig's
interstitial cells and primary spermatocyte cells of adult male rabbit
under the effect of oral Gossypol intake

Bassem S. Ahmed and Nasser M. Anwar*
From Departments of, Histology Al-Azhar Faculty of Medicine ­ Assuit and Pathology
Al-Azhar Faculty of Medicine ­ Cairo*


Gossypol is a natural compound extracted from the seeds of some species of cotton plants
(Gossypium species). Gossypol displays various drug properties, including male antifertility, anti-
proliferative activity on tumor cells (leukemia, prostate, adrenal, etc.) and endometriosis.
Recently, the action of gossypol has been thought to induce apoptosis in the target cells especially
male testicular tissue. The current study was planned to evaluate the effect of oral intake of
gossypol on the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene in the interstitial cells of Leydig and
primary spermatocyte cells of adult rabbit.
Thirty adult male rabbits were used, subdivided into 5 equal groups. Group1 represented control
group, groups 2, 3, and 4 represented rabbits intubated with 1.05mg/day gossypol suspended in
1ml. olive oil for 3,6 and 9 weeks respectively. Group5 rabbits were subjected to gossypol oral
intake in the same manner for 9weeks and were left for another 9weeks as recovery periods.
All rabbits were sacrificed after 24hrs from last dose except group5 rabbits, testes were extracted
fixed in neutral buffered formol and histologically processed for 5um paraffin sections. Detection of
Bcl-2 protein was done by using labeled streptavidin biotin technique with the monoclonal Bcl-2
The evaluation of Bcl-2 expression in the interstitial cells of Leydig and primary
spermatocyte cells, as an optical density, were done by the aid of image analysis system. The
obtained data were statistically analyzed by using student t-test.
The study showed that there was a positive Bcl-2 expression in the interstitial cells of Leydig in all
study groups, and there were statistically significant increase in the Bcl-2 expression in groups 2, 3
and 4 in comparison to control rabbits values (p<0.001). The recovery group rabbits showed a
statistically significant decrease in the Bcl-2 expression (p<0.001) in comparison to control rabbits
The primary spermatocyte cells showed a very weak Bcl-2 expression in control group rabbits
and rabbits of groups 2 and 3.
After 9weeks gossypol administration there was a positive Bcl-2 expression in some primary
spermatocyte cells (p<0.001) and the overexpression of Bcl-2 was continued in the recovery group
rabbits (p<0.001).
The study concluded that gossypol may trigger Bcl-2 expression in interstitial cells of Leydig,
which started after 2weeks of oral administration and this effect is diminished after cessation of oral
intake. Also there was an increase in Bcl-2 protein expression in primary spermatocyte cells after
9weeks of oral gossypol intake and that increase persisted even after cessation of gossypol.
The study recommends further study about the role of gossypol on the relation between apoptosis
inducing gene and apoptosis inhibiting gene in the testicular tissues.

Full Paper (vol.14 paper# 4)

Fetal Growth Retardation And Its Relationship To Maternal Blood Lead Levels, Antioxidants And Pregnancy Induced Hypertension The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 14 : 45 - 55 March 2004
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 - 2002

Fetal Growth Retardation And Its Relationship To Maternal Blood Lead
Levels, Antioxidants And Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

Ragab H. EL-Yamani* and Ahmed E. Karim**

* Obstetric and Gynecology Dept. Faculty of Medicine, Al-Margab University, Great
Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and **Biochemistry Dept., National research
center, Cairo, Egypt.


Lead intoxication in human being has been documented since the second century BC and
its deleterious effects continue to be a major health hazard for the population, it is demonstrated
that lead exposure might decrease the defense mechanism of the cell to the oxidative stress, and
therefore, elevate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation which enhance vascular
reactivity. Since vitamin E (Vit. E) and vitamin C (Vit. C) are natural antioxidants, changes in
their status may reflect alterations in free radical production rate and their concentrations are
biological markers of oxidative stress. This study was conducted to determine the relationship
between maternal blood lead levels and the antioxidants Vit.E and Vit.C in a step to understand
the mechanism of action of lead and its possible influence on maternal blood pressure and fetal
growth at the lower community exposure levels.
The study included, 42 patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) with or
without proteinuria, 31 patients with fetal growth retardation (FGR) and 23 women with
uncomplicated pregnancy. We demonstrated that, the maternal blood lead levels were
significantly high in the PIH (30.5 ±0.978 µg/dl) and FGR groups (28.87 ±1.21 µg/dl) as
compared with the uncomplicated pregnancy group (17.82 ±110µg/dl) at P0.00l Vit.E
concentrations were significantly lower in both PIH and FGR (0.941 ±0.033 mg/dl and 0.866 ±
0.055 mg/dl respectively) when compared with normal group (2.00±0.085 mg/dl). Regarding
Vit.C in the 2 studied groups there was significantly low levels in PIH group (0.772 ±0.030
mg/dl and FGR (0.847 ±0.039 mg/dl) in comparison with control group (l.23 ±0.06 mg/dl). We
observed significant negative correlation between maternal blood lead levels and Vit.E in PIH
and FGR group. A significant negative correlation was also observed between maternal lead
levels and Vit.C in both studied groups.
We concluded that high blood lead levels in pregnancy are associated with low Vit.E ,
Vit.C, FGR and PIH. Such association or relationship could not be causal and more longitudinal
studies are needed to confirm the link between lead, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and
pregnancy complications. This study may help in raising our consciousness of our environment
and the need to protect us. The lack of effective and safe treatments for low-level intoxication
has to promote environmental intervention to control different sources of lead to reduce lead
burden among women and their newborns and to protect the fetus from other intrauterine toxic
exposure that might be injurious.


Women are exposed increasingly to a
normal cellular processes such as differe-
variety of chemicals; including heavy
ntiation, mitosis, meiosis, programmed cell
metals, in the work place and environment
death, migration, intracellular commun-
(Guillette and Guillette 1996 and Sharara
ication, DNA repair, and mitochondrial
et al., 1998). The chemicals may alter
dysfunction (Mattison, 1983). These

Full Paper (vol.14 paper# 5)

Effect Of Haemodialysis On Intra Dialytic Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Levels In Relation To Autonomic The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 14 : 56 - 67 March 2004
I.S.S.N: 1208

1687 - 2002

Effect Of Haemodialysis On Intra Dialytic Calcium, Phosphorus,
Magnesium, Levels In Relation To Autonomic
Nervous System Activity

Mona Hosny, Sahar Shawky, Ahmed Ramadan , Hany Refaat
and Walid Bischary
Internal Medicine Departement, Ain Shams University.

Autonomic nervous system dysfunction is common in uremia and in patients under
Changes in serum calcium, serum phosphorus and serum magnesuim always occur during
hemodialysis. The relation between these changes and autonomic nervous system activity
during hemodialysis has not been fully studied.
This study was carried out on 30 patients with chronic renal failure on regular hemo-
dialysis with nearly similar age group. We measured serum calcium, serum phosphorus and
serum magnesium throughout the session (at predialysis state, middialysis state: after 2 hours of
the session and postdialysis: at the end of the hemodialysis Session). We have also assessed
autonomic function (sympathetic by cold pressor test and parasympathetic by Valsalva
maneuver test). Autonomic function tests were assessed at predialysis state, middialysis state
and postdialysis state.
Calcuim level uncreased throughout the session (P<0.05), phosphorus leuel and
Magnesium levels decreased , (P<0.001) and (P<0.05), throghout session .
As reguards parasympathetie dysfunetion, there was a significamt relation (P<0.05) with
calcuim changes at predialytic and post dialytic states, a highly significant relation (P<0.001)
with phosphorus and (P<0.05) with magnesiun, both at predialysis states.
Concerging sympathetie dysfunction, there was a significant relation (P<0.05) with
calcium levels at end of session. There was a signifcant relation (P<0.05) with predialytic and
postdialytic phosphorus levels .There was also significant relation (P<0.05 ) with predialytic
magnesium level.

The autonomic nervous system
al.,1999) and patients undergoing hemod-
(A.N.S) is involved in adaptation to envir-
ialysis treatement (Converse et al., 1992)
onmental changes. . The A.N.S. is functio-
exhibit sustained
nally distinguished in sympathetic and
sympathetic nervous system, which contri-
parasympathetic pathways. (Mosqueda -
butes to hypertension and increased card-
Garcia, 1996).
iovascular morbidity and mortality (Zoccali
Autonomic nervous system dysfun-
et al.,2002).
ction is a common feature in uremia and
In dialysis patients, elevated levels of
may have a number of clinical sequelae
phosphate and calcium times phosphate (Ca
(The National Kidney Foundation, Inc
x P) ion product are associated with extra-
skeletal calcifications, as well as an
The kidneys have a dense afferent
increased risk of death. Cardiovascular
sensory and efferent sympathetic innerv-
califications may possibly be related to the
ations. Therefore, they can be origin as well
high cardiovascular mortality seen in
as target of overactivirty of the sympathetic
dialysis patients (Gallieni et al., 2002).
nervous system (Rump. et al .,2000). It has
Renal failure is the most common
been convincingly shown that patients with
clinical disorder associated with hyperm-
compensated renal failure (Litenberg et
agnesemia (Moutokalakis,1990).
Refree : Prof ; Dr. Ahmad Mosaad

Full Paper (vol.14 paper# 6)

The effects of folic acid on carbon black toxicity in The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 14 :68 - 78 March 2004
I.S.S.N: 1208
1687 - 2002
The effects of folic acid on carbon black toxicity in
mouse embryo in vivo

Roshdy, H.M and Bibars, M.H
Cell Biology Department, National Research Center
Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

The wide commercial use of carbon black oil (CBO) to produce asphalt and other
commercial product has resulted in numerous environmental problems and harmful effects on
human health especially during the pregnancy. This study, examining the effect of maternal low
and high dietary folate intake and to protect the pregnant women from the developmental
toxicity of CBO. Virgin females CD--1 mice were assigned to diets containing either low 500
or 1300 high (control) nmol folic acid/kg for 6 weeks prior to mating and thought out breeding
and gestation. From gestation day (GD 6 to 18) females were given by gavage corn oil or CBO
at 500 mg/kg body weight, once daily. On CD 18, mice were weight and killed and the liver
removed and weighed. Implantation sites, live and dead fetuses, and resorptions were counted,
fetuses were weighed individually and examined for external malformations. The low dietary
FA treatment alone and with CBO treatment resulted in low maternal liver as well as low fetal
liver folate concentrations relative to the high FA dietary groups. Low FA treatment alone
resulted in malformed embryos; there were no embryos affected with malformed in the adequate
FA-control group. Low folic acid-CBO treatment resulted in a further increase in the malformed
embryos. The percent of malformed embryos in high folic acid-CBO treatment was very low
compared to the low folic acid-CBO group. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in
maternal and their fetuses was increased significantly in the low folic-CBO group than high
folic acid-CBO group. These results show that the low folate dietary diet with the exposure to
the high levels of CBO toxic material in pregnant women significantly increases the
developmental and mutagenic toxicity in the small fetuses.

The crude oil purification process, in the
Rylander, 1989). These women represent a
petroleum industry yields many side-stream
population that would more likely be
products. Such by-products may contain
exposed to CBo-type compounds, than
hydrocarbon chains that are more than 20
women not living or working near petroc-
carbons in length, as well as several other
types of molecules, including paraffin's,
observed an increased number of miscar-
isoparaffins, olefins, maphthenics, aliphatic
riages in a small subset of workers, they did
hydrocarbons, polycyclic aro-matic nitrog-
not demonstrate that work-related or
en heterocycles, and hydroxylated policy-
ambient community exposure overall was
clic aromatic hydrocarbons (Hansen et al.,
associated with an increased risk of misca-
2000). In addition to exposure in the work
rriage. Adverse pregnancy outcome was
place, pregnant women can be exposed to
also reported in a study of women living
carbon black oil, as it is found in every day
near petrochemical plants in china (Chen et
household items, such as hair dyes, pen ink,
al., 1995). Although air pollution caused by
as well as asphalt tar used in road
the petrochemical industry and automotive
fuel was suggested to be a main factor in
There are many reproductive risk of
the reproductive problems of women in
women who live near, or work in,

Full Paper (vol.14 paper# 7)

Hepatic Iron In Type Ii Diabetes The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 14 : 79 -85 March 2004

1687 - 2002

Hepatic Iron In Type II Diabetes

Mahmoud M. Bazid*, Abd Al-Monem H. Barrak*, Hani Abu Zeid*, Mohamad
Abd El-Aziz Fahmy**, Abd Ellah Abu Srie**
Internal Medicine*, Biochemistry** Departments, Al-Azhar
Faculty of Medicine.


The present work was carried on forty patients with type II diabetes of variable durations
of the disease . They were selected from Internal Medicine Department, Sayed, Galal Al-Azhar
University Hospital. They were 18 males and 22 females and their age ranged from 41 to 65
years. Twenty normal volunteer subjects were selected as a control group ( 9 males and 11
females and their age ranged from 45 to 65 years).
A full clinical evaluation was done. Labaratory investigations were also performed that
included measurement of plasma fasting and postprandial glucose, urea, creatinine, alanine
amino transferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) , bilirubin (total and direct), ANA,
iron, ferritin, insulin ( fasting and postgrandial as well as hepatitis markers (HbsAg and
HCVAb). Liver biopsy was taken for assessment of hepatic tissue iron concentration and
histologic assessment. The results revealed that there is a significant difference between cases
with type II diabetes and normal control as regarding insulin level (P<0.05). Also a significant
relation was noted between high fasting insulin level and increased body mass index (BMI)
especially above 30 . Also cases with type II diabetes with steatosis or steatohepatitis had
significantly higher fasting insulin level than cases without ( P<0.05). Our results showed that
there is a significant high hepatic iron concentration, serum ferritin and serum fasting insulin in
patients compared with control group (P<0.05). Also there is a significant increase in HIC and
serum ferritin among cases with longer duration of diabetes, together with significant increase
in steatosis and steatohepatitis among those cases. In addition, elevated serum ferritin in female
cases were of high significance (P<0.01) in comparison to significant elevation in male cases
[P<0.05], this may be explained by the fact that females have higher BMI than males.


Type II diabetes is one of the
mechanism whereby insulin resistance
metabolic conditions associated with high
would induce alterations in iron
rate of insulin resistance and is frequently
metabolism remains to be elucidated
associated with increased serum ferritin
(Vigano et al., 2000). One of the most
level (Kaye et al., 1993). In addition
interesting questions now is the nature of
Mendler et al., 1999 described the
the relationship between hepatic steatosis
association of hepatic iron overload,
and iron overload (Macdonald et al., 1999).
steatosis and presence of one or more
The aim of this work was to study the
components of insulin resistance syndrome
relationship between hepatic iron and type
Bonara et al., 1998 suggested the role of
II diabetes mellitus.
insulin resistance in the development of

hepatic iron. Iron overload, steatosis and
Patients And Methods
increased serum ferritin level. Hepatic
The present work was conducted on
steatosis is known to be associated with
forty patients with type II diabetes of
insulin resistance. Iron accumulation may
variable durations of the disease selected
also appear to be associated with insulin
from internal medicine department at Sayed
resistance (Fernandez et al., 1998). The
Galal - Al-Azhar University Hospital (18

Full Paper (vol.14 paper# 8)

Immunoprophylactic effect of single and mixed schistosomal The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 14 : 86 -103 March 2004

1687 - 2002

Immunoprophylactic effect of single and mixed schistosomal
antigens on Schistosoma mansoni infected mice

Ameen A. Ashour*., Samia A. Ahmed**. Maghraby A.S**.,
and Zahran H. G**.

*Zoology Department, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
**Therapeutical Chemistry Department, National Research Centre , Cairo, Egypt.

B This study aimed to detect the cellular, humoral immune responses and protection
against schistosomes induced by cercarial (CAP), soluble worm (SWAP), soluble egg (SEA),
and mixed (SEA + CAP), (SEA + SWAP) and (CAP + SWAP) antigens to Schistosoma
infection in mice, and the improvement in the liver enzyme activities before and after
challenge with S. mansoni. Each mouse was sensitized with an initial immunization of 0.6 ml of
the extracted antigen (30µg protein/ml). After one week, a second injection of 0.4 ml was given
(20µg protein/ml). Then, each mouse was exposed to 80 cercariae. Six weeks post challenge the
protection percentage was 42.5, 58.33, 53.33, 60.91, 78.16 and 64.77% for CAP, SEA, SWAP,
(SEA +CAP), (SEA+SWAP) and (CAP + SWAP), respectively. The results revealed a high
significant interrelation between number of lymph node cells (MLN) (P0.001), splenocytes
(P0.04) and thymocytes (P0.001) that obtained with each immunized group compared to
controls. A high significant difference (P0.001) between levels of IgG obtained between
different antigen groups and the control before and after challenge. The immunization with
previous antigens resulted in a remarkable improvement in the liver enzyme activities, which
were disturbed after infection. Thus, vaccination of mice with the previous different antigens
has an immunoprophylactic effect and may protect liver against infection through reduction in
worm burden leading to the improvement of many liver enzymes.
Key words: Liver, Mesenteric lymph nodes, Schistosoma mansoni; Splenocytes,

Schistosomiasis is the second major
supported by seven studies in human
parasitic disease in the world after malaria,
affects 200 million people. Vaccine strate-
progress made in identifying and producing
gies represent an essential component of the
protective antigens, at present there are no
control of this chronic debilitating disease
generally accepted vaccines against paras-
where the deposition of millions of eggs in
itic disease because schistosomes are a
the tissues is the main cause of pathology.
multicellular parasites with differentiated
While there are many challenges in vaccine
tissues, and therefore antigenitically comp-
development, none is greater than that of
lex. The approach most favoured by
developing vaccines against large metazoan
investigators is to select a subset of total
parasites such as schistosomes, the parasitic
worm antigens and examine their reactivity
worms that are responsible for schistose-
with serum from infected humans or
miasis (Capron, 2003).
laboratory hosts. It is an implicit
Research developed over the last 20
assumption that the subset of antigens
years has led to the identification of novel
chosen for investigation contains the targets
effector mechanisms, pointing for the first
of the protective immune response.
time to the protective role of the Th2
responses and of IgE antibodies now
antigens solublized from 3 hrs-old

Full Paper (vol.14 paper# 9)

Prophylactic effect of tamoxifen against induction The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 14 : 104 -114 March 2004

1687 - 2002

Prophylactic effect of tamoxifen against induction
of mammary carcinoma

Gabri MS(1), Osman AM(2), El-Sayed MM(2) and Negm Somaia.A(2)

(1) Department of Zoology, faculty of science, Helwan University
(2) Pharmacology and Experimental therapeutic Unit, Cancer biology Dep., National Cancer
Institute, Cairo University

Tamoxifen (TAM) is a potent anticancer agent known to interrupt the enhanced estrogen
activity of malignant mammary gland cells, The mechanism of tamoxifen's anti-tumor activity
is primarily due to its anti estrogen action. Female Swiss albino mice were used in the present
study and divided into:- normal control group, two Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) control
groups [treated interaperitonealy(IP) and subcutaneously (Sc)], tamoxifen treated only group,
tamoxifen pre treated then EAC (S.C) injected group and tamoxifen pre treated then EAC (I.P)
injected group.
The present results showed a significant decrease in tumor volume and a significant
increase in the survival time in the pre-treated group compared to untreated group. There was a
pathological change in the uterine tissues of the tamoxifen treated mice in the form of
squamous metaplasia and dysplasia of glandular epithelial . The kidney tissues showed a
minimal pathological change in the form of a focal renal lesion in the renal tubular epithelium.
in conclusion the present study showed that tamoxifen has a prophylactic effect against
experimental mammary carcinoma. And exerts some side effects on the histopathological
structure of the uterine and kidney tissues. Key words: Tamoxifen, Mammary carcinoma,
experimental, prophylactic, side effect.

Breast cancer is becoming an
substances that block the action of estrogen
increasingly important disease in all parts
might be helpful in preventing or treating
of the world, where it is one of the major
these two types of cancer. This rationale
causes of mortality and show steady
has led scientists to work on the
dramatic increase (1). In Egypt, data
development of "anti-estrogen" drugs that
reported by Mokhtar, (2) indicated that
can block the action of estrogens and
breast cancer ranked as number one (27.3
thereby interfere with, or even prevent, the
%) among females. Approximately 30 % of
proliferation of breast and uterine cancer
women diagnosed with breast cancer go on
to develop metastatic disease which is
Tamoxifen is a potent anticancer
ultimately fatal (3). Over the last 40 years
agent known to interrupt the enhanced
substantial progress has been made in the
estrogen activity of malignant mammary
diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer.
gland cells, and exerts this anti-estrogenic
Further more dramatic effort have been
effect by binding to the estrogen receptors
made to detect risk factors that will help of
of breast cells, thereby preventing estrogen
identify those women likely to develop
molecules from binding to these receptors.
breast cancer and have generated efforts to
But unlike the normal situation, when
prevent it.
estrogen binds to its receptor, the binding of
Since estrogen can promote the
tamoxifen to the receptor does not cause the
development of cancer in the breast and
receptor molecule to acquire the changed
uterus, it seems logical to postulate that
shape that allows it to bind to coactivators,

Full Paper (vol.14 paper# 10)

Therapeutic effect of lycopene-rich tomato juice on cardiac disorder in rats fed on fried food in oxidized frying oil The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 14 : 115 - 126 March 2004

1687 - 2002

Therapeutic effect of lycopene-rich tomato juice on cardiac disorder in
rats fed on fried food in oxidized frying oil

Hassan H. A. and Edrees G. M.

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.


Therapeutic effect of lycopene-rich tomato juice against evoked cardiac disorders in rats
fed on fried potato in oxidized frying cotton seed oil (20% w/w ) for 4-weeks was studied using
lycopene at a daily dose of 1 mg/Kg body weight.
Total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low-density lipoprotein
cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) were estimated in
different animal groups. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), aspartate
aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as well as serum calcium,
potassium and magnesium were determined
The obtained results revealed that, feeding on fried potato in deep oxidized frying oil
induced a notable increase in lipid profils and LDL-c associated with a marked elevation in
specific heart enzymes, LDL, CK, ALT and AST activities. These biochemical alterations
ameliorated when lycopene was administered to rats fed fried potato in oxidized frying oil.

Key words: Lycopene - tomato juice - fried food - frying oxidized oil.


Vegetables and fruit are rich sources
greater health benefits. Lycopene can be
of a variety of nutrients, including vitamins,
absorbed more efficiently by the body after
trace minerals, and dietary fiber, and many
it has been processed into juice, sauce,
other classes of biologically active
paste or ketchup (Giovannucci, 1999).
phytochemical compounds (Lampe, 1999).
Heating and adding a small amount of fat
Epidemiologic data support the
makes the lycopene more easily absorbed
intake of
by the body (Arab and Steck, 2000).
vegetables and fruits and low risk of
Diets high in fat, saturated fat and
different chronic diseases as several
cholesterol, in addition to physical
common cancers (Steinmetz and Potter,
inactivity, still plays a key role in heart
1996) and cardiovascular disease ( Banerjee
disease risk by increasing blood lipids
and Maulik 2002 and Seifried et al., 2003).
(Ernst and Schaefer, 2002).
Lycopene is considered as one of the
During deep-fat frying, when the fat is used
phytochemical, synthesized by plants and
repeatedly, oxidative and thermal effects
microorganisms but not by animals. Human
result in the formation of many volatile and
can not produce lycopene, so, they must
nonvolatile products, some of which are
take it in their food (Bramley, 2000).
potentially toxic and accumulate in our
Lycopene is a hydrocarbon carotenoid
dietary frying food (Battino et al., 2002).
found in tomatoes, tomato products and in
Fat frying is a popular food preper-
other fruits (Clinton, 1998). Lycopene is
ation method, but several components like
associated with the red color in tomatoes.
antioxidant vitamins could be lost due to
Concentrated cooked sources of tomatoes,
oxidation and some others with toxic
such as tomato sauce, are associated with
effects could appear. Many reactive

Full Paper (vol.14 paper# 11)